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- Partition of Bengal - Modern History of India in Hindi - UPSC/SSC CGL/CHSL/IAS/PSC/Railways
- UPSC : The Swadeshi Movement and The Partition of Bengal UPSC Notes | EduRev
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- Partition of Bengal
At the preliminary joint session, the assembly decided by votes to 90 that it should remain united if it joined the new Constituent Assembly of Pakistan. Later, a separate meeting of legislators from West Bengal decided by 58 votes to 21 that the province should be partitioned and that West Bengal should join the existing Constituent Assembly of India.
In another separate meeting of legislators from East Bengal, it was decided by votes to 35 that the province should not be partitioned and votes to 34 that East Bengal should join Pakistan in the event of partition.
The partition, with the power transferred to Pakistan and India on 14—15 August , was done according to what has come to be known as the "3 June Plan" or " Mountbatten Plan ". India's independence on 15 August ended over years of British influence in the Indian subcontinent. East Bengal later became the independent country of Bangladesh after the Bangladesh Liberation War. In , the first partition in Bengal was implemented as an administrative preference, making governing the two provinces, West and East Bengal, easier.
While the Muslims were in favour of the partition, as they would have their own province, Hindus were not. This controversy led to increased violence and protest and finally, in , the two provinces were once again united. However, the disagreements between Hindus and Muslims in Bengal which had sparked the Partition of Bengal in still remained and laws, including the Partition of Bengal in , were implemented to fulfill the political needs of the parties involved.
As per the plan, on 20 June , The members of the Bengal Legislative Assembly cast three separate votes on the proposal to partition Bengal:. Under the Mountbatten Plan, a single majority vote in favour of partition by either notionally divided half of the Assembly would have decided the division of the province, and hence the house proceedings on 20 June resulted in the decision to partition Bengal.
Also in accordance with the Mountbatten Plan, in a referendum held on 7 July, the electorate of Sylhet voted to join East Bengal.
Further, the Boundary Commission headed by Sir Cyril Radcliffe decided on the territorial demarcation between the two newly created provinces.
The Swadeshi Movement and The Partition of Bengal UPSC Notes | EduRev
Power was transferred to Pakistan and India on 14 and 15 August, respectively, under the Indian Independence Act After it became apparent that the division of India on the basis of the Two-nation theory would almost certainly result in the partition of the Bengal province along religious lines, Bengal provincial Muslim League leader Suhrawardy came up with a new plan to create an independent Bengal state that would join neither Pakistan nor India and remain unpartitioned.
Suhrawardy realised that if Bengal was partitioned, it would be economically disastrous for East Bengal  as all coal mines, all jute mills but two and other industrial plants would certainly go to the western part since these were in an overwhelmingly Hindu majority area. Suhrawardy floated his idea on 24 April at a press conference in Delhi. However, the plan directly ran counter to that of the Muslim League's , which demanded the creation of a separate Muslim homeland on the basis of the two-nation theory.
Bengal provincial Muslim League leadership opinion was divided. Barddhaman 's League leader Abul Hashim supported it.
On the Congress side, only a handful of leaders agreed to the plan. They also opined that even though the plan asked for a sovereign Bengal state, in practice it will be a virtual Pakistan and the Hindu minority will be at the mercy of the Muslim majority forever.
Although the chances of the proposal seeing daylight without Congress central committee's approval was slim, Bose and Suhrawardy continued talks to reach an agreement on the political structure of the proposed state. Like Suhrawardy, Bose also felt that the partition would severely hamper Bengal's economy and almost half of the Hindu population would be left stranded on the Pakistani side.
The proposal had hardly any support at grassroots level, particularly among the Hindus.
Partition of Bengal - Modern History of India in Hindi - UPSC/SSC CGL/CHSL/IAS/PSC/Railways
Suhrawardy insisted upon maintaining the separate electorate for Muslims and Non-Muslims. Bose was opposed to this. He withdrew and due to lack of any other significant support from the Congress's side, the United Bengal plan was discarded. The second partition of Bengal left behind a legacy of violence which continues to this day.
A massive population transfer began immediately after partition. Millions of Hindus migrated to India from East Bengal. The majority of them settled in West Bengal. A smaller number went to Assam , Tripura and other states.
However the refugee crisis was markedly different from Punjab at India's western border. Punjab witnessed widespread communal riots immediately before partition.
As a result, population transfer in Punjab happened almost immediately after the partition as terrified people left their homes from both sides. Within a year the population exchange was largely complete between East and West Punjab. But in Bengal, violence was limited only to Kolkata and Noakhali.
And hence in Bengal migration occurred in a much more gradual fashion and continued over the next three decades following partition. Both Hindus in East Bengal and Muslims in West Bengal felt unsafe and had to take a crucial decision that is whether to leave for an uncertain future in another country or to stay in subjugation under the other community.
Government employees were given a chance to swap their posts between India and Pakistan. The educated urban upper and middle class, the rural gentry, traders, businessmen and artisans left for India soon after partition.
They often had relatives and other connections in West Bengal and were able to settle with less difficulty. Muslims followed a similar pattern. The urban and educated upper and middle class left for East Bengal first.
However poorer Hindus in East Bengal, most of whom belonged to lower castes like the Namashudras found it much more difficult to migrate. Their only property was immovable land holdings.
UPSC : The Swadeshi Movement and The Partition of Bengal UPSC Notes | EduRev
Many sharecropped. They didn't have any skills other than farming. As a result, most of them decided to stay in East Bengal. However the political climate in Pakistan deteriorated soon after partition and communal violence started to rise.
Partition of Bengal (1947)
In severe riots occurred in Barisal and other places in East Pakistan, causing a further exodus of Hindus. The situation was vividly described by Jogendranath Mandal's resignation letter to the then prime minister of Pakistan Liaquat Ali Khan.
Mandal was a Namashudra leader and despite being a lower caste Hindu , he supported Muslim League as a protest to the subjugation of lower caste Hindus by their higher caste co-religionists. Throughout the next two decades Hindus left East Bengal whenever communal tensions flared up or relationship between India and Pakistan deteriorated, as in The situation of the Hindu minority in East Bengal reached its worst in the months preceding and during the Bangladesh Liberation War of , when the Pakistani army systematically targeted ethnic Bengalis regardless of religious background as part of Operation Searchlight.
History for UPSC (Civil Services) Prelims
In independent Bangladesh, state sponsored discrimination of Hindus largely stopped. But like India, the two communities relationship remains tense and occasional communal violence occurred, such as in the aftermath of Babri Mosque demolition. Migration to India continues to present day although now it is mostly due to economic reasons and is not limited to Hindus alone.
Though Muslims in post-independence West Bengal faced some discrimination [ citation needed ] , it was unlike the state sponsored discrimination faced by the Hindus in East Bengal.
Over the years, however, the community became ghettoised and was socially and economically segregated from the majority community. They had suffered terribly in severe riots before partition.
But they supported West Pakistan during Bangladesh's liberation war and were subsequently denied citizenship by Bengalis in independent Bangladesh. Most of these Bihari refugees still remain stateless. The census in India recorded 2.
The Partition of Bengal (1905) Study Material
Among them 2. The rest went to Assam, Tripura and other states. The following table shows the major waves of refugee influx and the incident that caused it. Rest were from Bihar. Crude estimates suggest that about 1. In Punjab, Indian Government anticipated a population transfer and was ready to take proactive measures.
Land plots which were evacuated by Muslims were allotted to incoming Hindu and Sikh refugees.
In contrast there was no such planning in the eastern part of the country. Neither Central nor West Bengal state Government anticipated any large-scale population exchange and no coordinated policy was in place to rehabilitate millions of homeless people. The newly independent country had few resource and the Central Government was exhausted in resettling 7 million refugees in Punjab.
Instead of providing rehabilitation, the Indian Government tried to stop and even reverse the refugee influx from East Bengal. India and Pakistan signed the Nehru-Liaqut pact in to stop any further population exchange between West and East Bengal. Both countries agreed to take the refugees back and return them their property which they evacuated in their respective countries. But in practice both countries failed to uphold it.
Even after it became clear that refugees were determined not to be sent back, the governments of both countries failed to provide any significant assistance. The Government policy of East Bengal refugee rehabilitation mostly consisted of sending them to 'empty areas', mostly outside of West Bengal. One of the most controversial of such schemes was the Government's decision to settle the refugees by force in Dandakaranya , a barren plot of land in central India.
Without Government's assistance the refugees often settled themselves. Some found jobs in factories.
Partition of bengal ppt to pdf
Many took small businesses and hawking. Numerous refugee colonies sprang up in Nadia , 24 Paraganas and Kolkata 's suburbs. The princely state of Tripura had a predominantly tribal population. But educated Bengalis were welcomed by the King and they were prominent in the state's administration in pre-independence India. But after partition thousands of Bengali Hindus migrated to Tripura.
This changed the state's demography completely. Tripura's tribes became a minority in their own homeland and also lost their land holdings.
As a result, tribal insurgency began which led violent riots among tribes and Bengalis in Low scale insurgency continues to this day. Radcliffe's line split Bengal, which historically was always a single economic zone , single cultural and ethnic Bengali-Hindu or Bengali-Muslim zone, into two-halves. The two-halves were intricately connected with each other.
Partition of Bengal
The fertile East produced food and raw materials which the West consumed and the industrialised West produced manufactured goods which were consumed by the East. This mutually beneficial trade and exchange was severely disrupted by the partition. Rail, road and water communication routes were severed between the two.