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- Outline of the Philippines
Situated in the western Pacific Ocean, it consists of about 7, islands  that are broadly categorized under three main geographical divisions from north to south: Luzon , Visayas and Mindanao. The Philippines' location on the Pacific Ring of Fire and close to the equator makes the Philippines prone to earthquakes and typhoons, but also endows it with abundant natural resources and some of the world's greatest biodiversity.
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Approximately 10 million additional Filipinos lived overseas ,  comprising one of the world's largest diasporas. Multiple ethnicities and cultures are found throughout the islands. In prehistoric times, Negritos were some of the archipelago's earliest inhabitants.
They were followed by successive waves of Austronesian peoples. Then, various competing maritime states were established under the rule of datus , rajahs , sultans and lakans. The arrival of Ferdinand Magellan , a Portuguese explorer leading a fleet for the Spanish, in Homonhon , Eastern Samar in marked the beginning of Hispanic colonization.
This resulted in Catholicism becoming the dominant religion. During this time, Manila became the western hub of the trans-Pacific trade connecting Asia with Acapulco in the Americas using Manila galleons. Later in the war, it was liberated by the combined forces of Americans and Filipinos and by , was recognized as an independent nation. Since then, the unitary sovereign state has often had a tumultuous experience with democracy, which included the overthrow of a dictatorship by a non-violent revolution.
It also hosts the headquarters of the Asian Development Bank.
Eventually the name Las Islas Filipinas would be used to cover all the islands of the archipelago. The official name of the Philippines has changed several times in the course of its history.
From the period of the Spanish—American War and the Philippine—American War — until the Commonwealth period — , American colonial authorities referred to the country as the Philippine Islands , a translation of the Spanish name. Philippines has steadily gained currency as the common name since being the name used in Article VI of the Treaty of Paris , with or without the definite article. Discovery in of stone tools and fossils of butchered animal remains in Rizal, Kalinga has pushed back evidence of early hominins in the archipelago to as early as , years.
The Philippines served as a connection to mainland Asia and Wallacea during the Early to Middle Pleistocene , facilitating the spread of hominins and megafauna to what is now eastern Indonesia. There are several opposing theories regarding the origins of ancient Filipinos, starting with the " Waves of Migration " hypothesis of H.
Otley Beyer in , which claimed that Filipinos were "Indonesians" and "Malays" who migrated to the islands. This is completely rejected by modern anthropologists and is not supported by any evidence, but the hypothesis is still widely taught in Filipino elementary and public schools resulting in the widespread misconception by Filipinos that they are " Malays ". In , Filipino anthropologist Felipe Landa Jocano proposed the " Core Population " theory which posits that ancestors of the Filipinos evolved locally , rejecting Beyer's assertion that Filipinos are the same ethnic groups as the Malay people.
His proposal roughly aligns with the more recent " Out of Sundaland " model proposed by a minority of academics, which includes Wilhelm Solheim 's " Nusantao Maritime Trading and Communication Network ". It postulates that the peopling of the archipelago transpired via trade networks originating in the Sundaland area modern Sumatra , Java , Borneo , and the Malay Peninsula which was then inundated by rising sea levels at the end of the Last Glacial Period around 11, years ago.
The most widely accepted theory, however, is the "Out-of-Taiwan" model which follows the Austronesian expansion during the Neolithic in a series of maritime migrations originating from Taiwan that spread to the islands of the Indo-Pacific ; ultimately reaching as far as New Zealand , Easter Island , and Madagascar.
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This includes civilizations like the Liangzhu culture , Hemudu culture , and the Majiabang culture. Aside from language and genetics, they also share common cultural markers like multihull and outrigger boats , tattooing , rice cultivation , wetland agriculture , teeth blackening , jade carving, betel nut chewing , ancestor worship , and the same domesticated plants and animals including dogs, pigs, chickens, yams, bananas, sugarcane, and coconuts.
From there, they rapidly spread downwards to the rest of the islands of the Philippines and Southeast Asia , as well as voyaging further east to reach the Northern Mariana Islands by around BC. These artifacts have been found in many other areas in insular and mainland Southeast Asia, indicating long range maritime trade and communication between prehistoric Southeast Asian societies. The current demarcation between the Prehistory and the Early history of the Philippines is 21 April , which is the equivalent on the Proleptic Gregorian calendar for the date indicated on the Laguna Copperplate Inscription LCI — the earliest known surviving written record to come from the Philippines.
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Landa Jocano called the "Barangic Phase" of early Philippine history, beginning from the 14th century through the arrival of Spanish colonizers and the beginning of the Philippines' colonial period.
The term, barangay , originally describes both a house on land and a boat on water; containing families, friends and dependents and is currently the basic political unit of the Philippines. The discovery of iron at around the 1st century AD created significant social and economic changes which allowed settlements to grow larger and develop new social patterns, characterized by social stratification and specialization.
Some of these polities, particularly the coastal settlements at or near the mouths of large rivers,  eventually developed substantial trade contacts with the early trading powers of Southeast Asia, most importantly the Indianized kingdoms of Malaysia and Java, the various dynasties of China,  Thailand,  and later, the Muslim Sultanate of Brunei.
Based on archaeological findings, trade with China is believed to have begun in the Tang dynasty , but grew more extensive during the Song dynasty. Among the early Philippine polities, this arrangement fulfilled the requirements for trade with China, but did not actually translate into political or military control. Regarding the relations of early Philippine polities with the various state-level polities of Indonesia and Malaysia, legendary accounts often mention the interaction of early Philippine polities with the Srivijaya empire, but there is not much archaeological evidence to definitively support such a relationship.
The exact scope and mechanisms of Indian cultural influences on early Philippine polities are still the subject of some debate among Southeast Asian historiographers,   but the current scholarly consensus is that there was probably little or no direct trade between India and the Philippines,   and Indian cultural traits, such as linguistic terms and religious practices,  filtered in during the 10th through the early 14th centuries, through early Philippine polities' relations with the Hindu Majapahit empire.
The early polities of the Philippine archipelago were typically characterized by a three-tier social structure. The earliest historical record of local polities and kingdoms is the Laguna Copperplate Inscription , which indirectly refers to the Tagalog polity of Tondo c. Diwata in Mindanao, and the temple complex of Medang in Java.
The next historical record referring to a location in the Philippines, is Volume of the official history of the Song dynasty which describes the purportedly Buddhist "country" of Ma-i c.
Song dynasty traders visited Ma-i annually, and their accounts described Ma-i's geography, trade products, and the trade behaviors of its rulers. The official history of the Song dynasty next refers to the Rajahnate of Butuan c. Butuan attained prominence under the rule of Rajah Sri Bata Shaja,  who was from a Buddhist ruling-class governing a Hindu nation.
This state became powerful due to the local goldsmith industry and it also had commercial ties and a diplomatic rivalry with the Champa civilization. Butuan was so wealthy, the quantity of gold recently unearthed in Butuan surpassed that of the even more famous Srivijaya state. Historian Efren Isorena has asserted that Visayan raiding parties conducted raids on the port cities of southern China between A. They made their territory into a powerful and wealthy maritime state, which was eventually deemed the " Venice of the Visayas".
According to legend, the Kedatuan of Madja-as c. Its founding datu, Puti, had purchased land for his new realms from the aboriginal Ati hero, Marikudo. The people of Pannai policed the Strait against all odds for years. Upon their rebellion against an invading Chola Empire, the people of Madja-as, being loyalist warriors, conducted resistance movements against the Hindu and Islamic invaders that arrived from the west from their new home base in the Visayas islands.
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The Rajahnate of Cebu  c. Sri Lumay who was sent by the Chola Maharajah to invade Madja-as, rebelled and formed his own independent Tamil-Malay rajahnate and even when descended from Maharajahs, humbled himself to be a mere founding Rajah of Cebu and had associated himself with the Visayans.
This state grew wealthy by making use of the inter-island shipping within the archipelago. However, they failed to establish a foothold in the Visayas islands which was populated by Srivijayan loyalists who waged incessant guerrilla warfare against them. Eventually, Luzon regained independence from Majapahit after the Battle of Manila and then Sulu also reestablished independence and in vengeance, assaulted the Majapahit province of Poni Brunei before a fleet from the capital drove them out.
Eventually, in the face of these Islamic conversions, the remnants of Hindu Majapahit fled to the island of Bali. He was also the head of an international armada which traded and protected commerce between the Indian Ocean, the Strait of Malacca , the South China Sea ,  and the medieval maritime principalities of the Philippines. According to historian Paul Kekai Manansala, the famed Ming admiral, Zheng He , attacked Luzon and destroyed Manila but an alliance of local kingdoms then repulsed his army and the conquest was forced back and limited to Pangasinan.
The s saw the arrival and eventual spread of Islam in the Philippine archipelago. The sultanate form of government extended further into Lanao. Islam then started to spread out of Mindanao in the south and went into Luzon in the north. Thus reestablishing the Bruneian vassal-state of the Muslim Rajahnate of Maynila as its enforcer in Luzon.
Brunei had also conquered the northern third and the southern third of the Philippines         but failed to conquer the Visayas islands even though Sultan Bolkiah himself was half-Visayan from his Visayan mother. Sultan Bolkiah is associated with the legend of Nakhoda Ragam the singing captain, a myth about a handsome, virile, strong, musically gifted and angelic voiced prince who is known for his martial exploits. There is contextual evidence that Sultan Bolkiah may indeed be Nakhoda Ragam, since he is of half Visayan-Filipino descent since later Spanish accounts record that Filipinos, especially Visayans, were obsessed with singing and the warrior castes were particularly known for their great singing abilities.
The Muslims then proceeded to wage wars and conduct slave-raids against the Visayans. The Hindu Rajahnates of Butuan and Cebu also endured slave raids from, and waged wars against the Sultanate of Maguindanao  while their southern Hindu ally, the Rajahnate of Kutai , struggled with the Sultanate of Brunei for hegemony over Borneo island.
Furthermore, the islands were sparsely populated  due to consistent natural disasters  and inter-kingdom conflicts. Therefore, the thinly manned territory was overpowered, and the small states of the archipelago quickly became incorporated into the Spanish Empire and were Hispanicized and Christianized.
Journalist Alan Robles has opined, "Colonialism created the Philippines, shaped its political culture and continues to influence its mindset. The years under Spain and nearly five decades under the USA decisively moulded the nation". In , Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan 's expedition arrived in the Philippines, claimed the islands for Spain and was then killed at the Battle of Mactan.
After relocating to Panay island and consolidating an alliance of native Filipino Visayan allies, Hispanic soldiers and Latin-American recruits, led by conquistadors such as Mexico-born Juan de Salcedo ,  had invaded Muslim Manila.
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Juan de Salcedo had inspired military feats due to his love for the beautiful princess of Bruneian-besieged Tondo, Kandarapa, they had a tragic forbidden romance. Yet princess Kandarapa proved the intensity of her love when she died of a broken-heart when she heard lies that her Mexican knight had married the daughter of the Rajah of Macabebe.
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Luzon was then placed under Spanish rule. They established Manila as the capital of the Spanish East Indies Several war fleets were raised in Brunei in order to retake Manila but all were frustrated. However, nearby Mindoro , being a former developed Buddhist state transformed into a Muslim colony with its own stone fort and cannons, was utterly ruined and depopulated due to it turning into a war-zone between contesting Christian and Muslim powers, with the Moros from Mindanao attempting to Re-islamize the place by enslaving recent Christian converts there or forcing them to revert to Islam which was opposed by, and the situation made worse because, Christians from Manila had repeatedly demolished and extinguished any Muslim attempt to refortify the island and had also force converted any Muslim they encountered into becoming Christians.
Thus destroying the once wealthy and populous cities of Mindoro and transforming the province into an impoverished and embattled military frontier zone. The Spanish forces also defeated the Chinese warlord Limahong.
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Pengiran Seri Lela offered vassalage under the Spanish to reclaim his crown. In modern times, Bruneian-Philippine relations were symbolically restored when the Filipino architect Leandro V. Locsin helped designed the Istana Nurul Iman which is now the largest residential Palace in the world.
The Spanish expeditions into the Philippines were also part of a larger Ibero-Islamic world conflict  that included a just war against the Ottoman Caliphate which had just recently invaded former Christian lands in the Eastern Mediterranean and had a center of operations at its nearby protectorate , the Sultanate of Aceh  which was the first missionary center of expanding Islam in Southeast Asia and had grew at the expense of older Animist, Hindu or Buddhist states that had remained loyal to their religions in the face of an encroaching Islam.
These states were sought as allies by Christian newcomers. The Muslim side was also equally racially diverse.
In addition to the native Malay warriors, the Ottomans had repeatedly sent military expeditions to nearby Aceh. Ottoman manufacturing techniques and martial organization were so ingrained, the Christian soldiers who warred with these Malay Sultanates observed Ottoman influence in their militaries.
These were abandoned and the Spanish soldiers, along with the newly Christianized natives of the Moluccas , withdrew back to the Philippines in order to re-concentrate their military forces because of a threatened invasion by the Japan-born Ming -dynasty loyalist, Koxinga , ruler of the Kingdom of Tungning. Meanwhile, settlers were sent to the Pacific islands of Palau and the Marianas.
Outline of the Philippines
Spanish rule eventually contributed significantly to bringing political unity to the fragmented states of the archipelago. From to , the Philippines was governed as a territory of the Mexico-based Viceroyalty of New Spain and then was administered directly from Madrid after the Mexican War of Independence.
The Manila galleons , the largest wooden ships ever built, were constructed in Bicol and Cavite.
Trade introduced foodstuffs such as maize , tomatoes , potatoes , chili peppers , chocolate and pineapples from Mexico and Peru.