Vida Leminski Pdf To Excel

Vida leminski pdf to excel

The city's population was 1,, as of [update] , making it the eighth most populous city in Brazil and the largest in Brazil's South Region.

Vida leminski pdf to excel

The Curitiba Metropolitan area comprises 26 municipalities [3] with a total population of over 3. In the s Curitiba's favorable location between cattle -breeding countryside and marketplaces led to a successful cattle trade and the city's first major expansion. In the s, waves of European immigrants arrived in Curitiba, mainly Germans , Italians , Poles and Ukrainians , contributing to the city's economic and cultural development. Curitiba's biggest expansion occurred after the s, with innovative urban planning that allowed the population to grow from some hundreds of thousands to more than a million people.

Curitiba is one of the few Brazilian cities with a high Human Development Index 0.

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Despite its good social indicators, the city has a higher unemployment rate than other cities in the state. The name was changed to "Curitiba" in Curitiba officially became a town in , spelling its name as "Curityba.

A state decree in settled the dispute by adopting "Curitiba. At the end of the 17th century, Curitiba's agriculture was only for subsistence and its main economic activities were mineral extraction. Around the beginning of the 20th century, Curitiba benefited from the wealth of the yerba mate mills. In the s and s, Alfred Agache , co-founder of the French Society for Urban Studies, was hired to produce its first city plan.

It emphasized a "star" of boulevards , with public amenities downtown, an industrial district and sanitation. It was followed in part, but the plan was too expensive to complete.


The city's mild winters, due to its low latitude, differentiate its climate from typically temperate ones. Snowfall was experienced in , , , two days , , , , , , and again in The terrain's flatness hinders water drainage after rain, therefore providing water vapor for the atmosphere.

Cold fronts come year round, often from Antarctica and Argentina, bringing tropical storms in summer and cold winds in the winter. They can move very quickly, with no more than one day between the start of the southern winds and the start of rain.

Vida leminski pdf to excel

Curitiba is located in the area of the Ombrophilous Mixed Forest also known as Araucaria moist forests , a sub-type of the Atlantic Forest. In Curitiba it is possible to find steppes, forests and other formations. The Municipal Secretariat of the Environment maintains a botanical garden and three greenhouses that produce , native and exotic seedlings: 16, fruit trees, , flowers, foliage and underbrush specimens and the maintenance of another , seedlings.

Curitiba's green area itself matches the size of other large Brazilian cities.

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The catchment area of Curitiba consists of rivers and streams that cross the city in different directions, grouped in six river basins. Curitiba has been working since the s on alternatives to minimize the negative impacts of urbanization on rivers. An example is the construction of parks along the rivers with artificial lakes, which absorb and retain water for longer periods of time, minimizing floods.

Other alternatives developed to minimize the negative effects of urbanization are the implementation of programs for environmental education, inspection and monitoring, elaboration and application of legislation and infrastructure works. The city covers Curitiba has a topography of smooth, rounded hills, giving it a relatively regular shape.


The city has an average altitude of As of [update] , the mayor is Rafael Greca, who replaced Gustavo Fruet. The City Council of Curitiba has 38 councillors elected since Curitiba is divided into nine regional governments equivalent to subprefecture , who manage the municipality's 75 districts.

The Rua da Cidadania "Street of Citizenship" is the symbol of administrative decentralization; it is a reference point and a meeting place. Several units are annexed to public transport terminals.

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Their nuclei offer services in the local, state and federal areas. Jaime Lerner is perhaps Curitiba's best-known mayor. He has been mayor three times, the first time in the early s.

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His leadership was crucial to some major changes in the city. Curitiba has built parks instead of canals to reduce flooding; used parks to make the city more liveable; pedestrianised the downtown area; invented and built Bus Rapid Transit BRT , a bus system that works like a light rail system but is 10 times cheaper; and started a massive recycling scheme that included giving people bus tokens in return for waste.

Time magazine listed this former mayor among the world's most influential thinkers of In the days before free direct elections, mayors were political appointees who were no more than pawns in the game of power politics and were subject to replacement at any time. For an idealistic young architect like Lerner, retaining the mayor's office was particularly precarious.

Those holding the reins of power at the time were under the mistaken impression that Lerner's youth would make him easy to control. As it turned out, he was no milquetoast , and subsequently set about enthusiastically pursuing reform. In , Curitiba was Brazil's 8th most populous city. In , the city had , opposite-sex couples and same-sex couples. The population of Curitiba was As with most of Southern Brazil 's population, Curitiba is mostly inhabited by European descendants.

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The first Europeans to arrive were of Portuguese origin, during the 17th century. They intermarried with the native people and with the African slaves. Up until the 19th century, the inhabitants of the city of Curitiba were natives and mixed-race, Portuguese and Spanish immigrants. In foreigners were granted the right to ownership of land, and in Parana became an independpent province, and these events resulted in a substantial number so of immigrants from Europe.

The first non- Iberian Portuguese and Spaniard immigrants to come to the city were German. The seven wooden log houses are parts of this memorial area, as a memento of the Polish immigrants' struggles and faith. Curitiba has the biggest colony of Polish immigrants in Brazil. Italian immigrants started arriving in Brazil in and in Curitiba in , coming mainly from the Veneto and Trento regions of Northern Italy.

Vida leminski pdf to excel

They settled mostly in the Santa Felicidade neighborhood, still a centre of the Italian community. Nearly 20, Ukrainian immigrants settled there between and , consisting mostly of peasants from Galicia who emigrated to Brazil to become farmers. Curitiba has a Jewish community [49] that was originally established in the s.

A Holocaust memorial is present in the city.

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The community centre , a Jewish school , a Chabad house Beit Chabad , [54] a synagogue, [55] and two Jewish cemeteries are there, [56] one of which was defiled in Japanese immigrants began arriving in , with a larger contingent arriving in Curitiba received a significant Japanese influx.

Some estimates suggest that more than 40, Japanese-Brazilians live in Curitiba. Its economy is based on industry, commerce and services.

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For that reason, Curitiba is considered by many investors to be the best location for investment in Brazil. The city receives more than two million tourists every year.

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Most arrive via Afonso Pena International Airport , where almost 60, flights land annually. Industry represented Curitiba's infrastructure makes bus travel fast and convenient, effectively creating demand for bus use in the same way that the infrastructure of traditional cities creates demand for private motor vehicles. The city's year economic growth rate is 7.

Curitiba has municipal health, education and day care networks, neighborhood libraries shared by schools and citizens and Citizenship Streets, where buildings provide essential public services, sports and cultural facilities near transportation terminals.

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At the Open University, residents can take courses in subjects such as mechanics, hair styling and environmental protection for a small fee. Policies for job creation and income generation became part of the city's strategic planning in the s, for the metropolitan area as well as the city. Since , the Municipal Housing Fund has provided financial support to housing for lower income populations.

After national housing finance collapsed in , just as people from the countryside poured into Curitiba, the city's public housing program bought one of the few remaining large plots of land, "Novo Bairro" New Neighborhood , as home for 50, families. While landowners built the houses themselves, each received a pair of trees and an hour's consultation with an architect to help them develop their plan.

The Rua das Flores Street of Flowers is home to the majority of stores.

Vida leminski pdf to excel

The area is pedestrianized, with no cars around the centre. The 3rd position among the Champions of Infrastructure, Exame Magazine of Magazine of One of the highlights according to the survey Offshoring Horizons performed by Watson Wyatt of One of the 10 global sustainability centres, according to Ethisphere Institute of These lighthouses are free educational centres that include libraries , Internet access and other cultural resources.

Libraries work with municipal schools, offering a collection of approximately books, and provide cultural reference and leisure. Among Brazilian capitals, Curitiba has the highest literacy rate, [79] and ranks number 1 in education among the Brazilian capitals.

Curitiba has a planned transportation system, which includes lanes on major streets devoted to a bus rapid transit system. The buses are split into three sections bi-articulated and stop at designated elevated tubes, complete with access for disabled riders.

Vida leminski pdf to excel

Buses charge one price regardless of distance. The city preserves and cares for its green areas, boasting In the s and s, Alfred Agache , cofounder of the French Society for Urban Studies , was hired to produce the first city plan.

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It emphasised a star of boulevards, with public amenities downtown, an industrial district and sanitation. The plan was too expensive to complete. By the s, Curitiba's population had reached , Some residents feared that the growth in population threatened to damage the character of the city.

In , Mayor Ivo Arzua solicited proposals for urban design.

Vida leminski pdf to excel

This plan, known as the Curitiba Master Plan, was adopted in