Victoria Tin Bor Hui Pdf Reader

Victoria tin bor hui pdf reader

More from Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction. The Journal of Mine Action Issue 5.

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The Journal of Mine Action Issue 8. The Journal of Mine Action 4. The U. Humanitarian Demining in Africa U. Humanitarian Demining in Africa. Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction , Dec A PDF file should load here. If you do not see its contents the file may be temporarily unavailable at the journal website or you do not have a PDF plug-in installed and enabled in your browser. The Journal of Mine Action Issue 6.

Toggle navigation. Humanitarian Demining in Africa by Sarah E.

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Michael L. Upcoming Issues Version 6. Every effort will be mode to maintain the integrity and meaning ofthe text.

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DepartmentofDefenseorthe State Deportment. Buse Editor Margaret S. Ken Rutherford Dr. H u m a n i t a r i a n D e m i n i n g in A f r i c a Due to the numerous internal conflicts, crises and wars that several of the nations in Africa have faced, this region is one of the places in the world that is significantly affected by landmines.

In an attempt to alleviate the suffering from landmine injuries, the United States has set out to provide humanitarian mine action assistance to many of these afflicted nations. Kindig, JMU taking a break.

Today, landmines or UXO affect 30 of Africa's Aided by the U. Thanks to contributions from rhe U. Along with other donors, the United States played a pivotal role in estab lishing Chad's demining program. Since , U. So far, the Djibourian demining reams have des troyed landmines and 28 p. C urrenrly, Ethiopian deminers are clearing an average of 1, square meters per week.

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In addition, mine detection dog teams are averaging 6, square meters per week of area clearance. A Zimbabwe village on the edge of a live minefield. In addition, 2, mines and pieces of UXO have been cleared. With unilateral support from the U. There was only one casualry in In , with support from the U. Mozambique Two decades of war have left Mozambique littered with landmines.

Thanks ro the combined efforrs ofdemining organizations, the Mozambique National Demining Institute reponed that in nearly two million square meters of land were cleared and 2, landmines were destroyed, permitting significant economic development and allowing refugees to resettle on safe land.

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Presently, the U. Namibia's 1, deminers, trained by U.

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SOF have cleared over 1,, square meters ofland and removed over 5, landmines and 1, uxo. By the middle of April , 39, pieces ofUXO had been cleared from the site and subsequenrly destroyed. Rwanda's demining program is currently in the sustainment phase, and Rwanda expects to declare itself mine safe in early The greatest concentrarion of mines is in Somaliland in the northwest region of the country.

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Through February , the demining effort in Somaliland has cleared 19,, square-meters of land and destroyed 1, mines and pieces ofUXO. The cleared land has enabled refugees to return to their homes. Since , the U.

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C learance operations began in May. Swaziland Swaziland has one minefield located along irs border with Mozambique. SOF trained Swazi military forces to conduct demining operations, and the DOS provided funds to procure demining equipment. Zambia is currently in the process of being trained by U. Since the program's inception in , the U. Zimbabwe Zimbabwe has an estimated 2,, landmines buried within its territory. Zimbabwe's demining program has cleared , square meters ofland, allowing large parts of Victoria Falls to be opened for tourists and the Zambezi Valley to become safe for resettlement.

Currently, Zimbabwe's demining efforts are in the sustainment phase.

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G iven the range of activities and the number ofplayers involved in mine action, coo rdination is a prerequisite to the effective impleme ntation of mine action programmes in the field. MACCs are therefore a central co mponent of most mine action programmes.

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Support for their establishment and development has been at rhe core of UN mine acrion ever since the first such centre was established for Afghanistan in MACCs are normally initiated and developed under the direct auspices of local authorities. This assistance is provided through the United Nations Development Programme UNDP for long-term capacity building programmes, and through UNMAS for programmes developed in the context of peacekeeping operations or in response to immediate hu manitarian needs.

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The humanitarian consequences of the conflict have been devastating. Sudan Sudan has been at war for nearly 40 years. One of the initial responsibilities of the UN MAP in Sudan will be to develop a more comprehensive understanding of the scope of the problem and its impact on the people ofSudan. Several of the first-time partnerships discussed could be applicable to future Humanitarian Demining HD programs. A fundamental lesson is that the organizational parameters of selected U.

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Equally important, these cooperative efforts resulted in significant cost savings to U. HD aid to Djibouti. While the commenceme nt of yet another U. Central Command planners.

The Journal of Mine Action Issue 6.2

T he Djibouti HD p rogram results suggest that "out of the box" plan ning and execution cooperation can achieve significant cost, schedule, and quality- related consequences that open H 0 programs to unforeseen advantages and pleasant surprises. The Mine Problem Djibouti's mine problem is a result of ten years of civil war.

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Due to the nature ofthe warfare, the extent of the Djiboutian land mine problem is unknown. Consequently, in late Djibouti requested U. The Djibouti country plan outlined the U. Previous HD country plans were based on an month planning and execution cycle.

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Previous and on going U. Seldom have the two approaches combined ro achieve rime and cost savings. Training the Training Team Prior to deployment, all U. Djibouti Be U. During this p eriod, two significant. Many close friendships and professional exchanges conrinue today.

While secondary to the value we may place on people's safecy and fr eedom, th e role of humanitarian demining as an engagement opportunicy was underscored in Djibouti.

His management of the day-ro-day logistical needs, financial accounting, and his abilicy to quickly effect facilicy repairs allowed the HDTrainingTeam to focus on continuously evaluating and improving training.

This arrangement recogn izes rhat longer-term U.

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This would provide several immediate benefits. Although breaking new ground during this cooperative endeavor generated several lessons learned, the experience and results might serve as a model for future HD engagemems in orher mine-inflicted nations seeking U.

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The authors note that HD success has traditionally been measured in quamiries such as numbers of mines and UXO neutralized, minefields or area cleared, and reduction in casualties. Donors in particular often seek such numbers as incentives to cominue support. A notion being advanced today, in particular by the UN, is that success may also be a fUnction of socio-economic impact considerations and people's perception of a mine threat. Although Djibouti was nor recognized as a high or even medium-threat mined nation, roughly one-third of the northern region was immobilized due to a perception of mines and UXO.

Reduction in casualties remains the most important consideration. In Angola, HALO has successfully adapted to an unstable political climate to help clear mines and allow for the return of hundreds of thousands of displaced refugees. In light of Angola's newfound peace, the Trust plans to expand their operations and finish the job.

Volume 134, Issue 3

This equipment is controlled and used by 26 separate demining teams. HALO has been presenred with a unique and daun ting challenge in Angola. Although Angola has signed and ratified the Mine Ban Treaty, little has been done to stop the use oflandmines. When Angola's electoral process collapsed in , a period of indiscriminate mine laying commenced.

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The collapse of rhe UN's Angolan peace arrempr in I opened the gates for ten more years ofbirrer conflict. The conflict ultimately interrupted H ALO's demining operations.

For HALO, this has created an urgent and unique demining scenario.