Progresismo El Octavo Pasajero Pdf File

Progresismo el octavo pasajero pdf file

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Harvard and MIT are not alone. Their announcement followed closely behind a similar one just a few weeks earlier by another group of elite institutions: the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor, the University of Pennsylvania, and Stanford and Princeton Universities.

Or with their billions in endowments, do they have the luxury of throwing money at ideas, to see which ones stick? Or are they simply altruistic, and want to provide free education to the world?

Depending on the course subject, they could sell access to corporate recruiters. This makes sense given these institutions recruit far and wide to expand their pool of applicants in the hope of finding that perfect student. Most of the time they choose correctly.

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Sometimes they miss. The question that remains, of course, is scale. In this case, how much is too much? There were 1, students who had perfect or near-perfect scores on homework and tests. These elite universities already have too few spots for all the talented students who apply through regular methods.

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One thoughtful futurist at an elite institution, who is thinking about this model, told me that perhaps the alternative admissions method could feed a new school created at the university. Or maybe the new school within the university would take them through graduation.

There are plenty of options, many of which would allow these elite institutions to answer their critics—who want them to broaden enrollment as applications have skyrocketed—by expanding classes at the same time they maintain their quality and air of exclusivity. Chubb and Moe: Higher Education's Online Revolution The substitution of technology which is cheap for labor which is expensive can vastly increase access to an elite-caliber education.

Progresismo el octavo pasajero pdf file

They talked of the "revolutionary" potential of online learning, hailing it as the "single biggest change in education since the printing press.

Heady talk indeed, but they are right. The nation, and the world, are in the early stages of a historic transformation in how students learn, teachers teach, and schools and school systems are organized. These same university leaders mentioned the limits of edX itself.

Its online courses would not lead to Harvard or MIT degrees, they noted, and were no substitute for the centuries-old residential education of their hallowed institutions. They also acknowledged that the initiative, which offers free online courses prepared by some of the nation's top professors, is paid for by university funds—and that there is no revenue stream and no business plan to sustain it. In short, while they want to be part of the change they know is coming, they are uncertain about how to proceed.

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And in this Harvard and MIT are not alone. Stanford, for instance, offers a free online course on artificial intelligence that enrolls more than , students world-wide—but the university's path forward is similarly unclear.

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How can free online course content be paid for and sustained? How can elite institutions maintain their selectivity, and be rewarded for it, when anyone can take their courses?

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This challenge can be met. Over the long term, online technology promises historic improvements in the quality of and access to higher education.

The fact is, students do not need to be on campus at Harvard or MIT to experience some of the key benefits of an elite education. Moreover, colleges and universities, whatever their status, do not need to put a professor in every classroom.

One Nobel laureate can literally teach a million students, and for a very reasonable tuition price.

Progresismo el octavo pasajero pdf file

Online education will lead to the substitution of technology which is cheap for labor which is expensive —as has happened in every other industry—making schools much more productive. And lectures just scratch the surface of what is possible. Online technology lets course content be presented in many engaging formats, including simulations, video and games.

Progresismo el octavo pasajero pdf file

It lets students move through material at their own pace, day or night. It permits continuing assessment, individual tutoring online, customized reteaching of unlearned material, and the systematic collection of data on each student's progress.

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In many ways, technology extends an elite-caliber education to the masses who would not otherwise have access to anything close. Skeptics worry that online learning will destroy the "college experience," which requires that students be at a geographical place school , interacting with one another and their professors.

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But such a disconnect isn't going to happen. The coming revolution is essentially about finding a new balance in the way education is organized—a balance in which students still go to school and have face-to-face interactions within a community of scholars, but also do a portion of their work online. In this blended educational world, the Harvards and MITs will not be stuck charging tuition for on-campus education while they give away course materials online. They and other elite institutions employ world-renowned leaders in every discipline.

They have inherent advantages in the creation of high-quality online content—which hundreds of other colleges and universities would be willing to pay for. In this way, college X might have its students take calculus, computer science and many other lecture courses online from MIT-Harvard or other suppliers , and have them take other classes with their own local professors for subjects that are better taught in small seminars.

College X can thus offer stellar lectures from the best professors in the world—and do locally what it does best, person to person.

Don't dismiss the for-profit colleges and universities, either. Institutions such as the University of Phoenix—and it is hardly alone—have embraced technology aggressively. By integrating online courses into their curricula and charging less-than-elite prices for them, for-profit institutions have doubled their share of the U. In time, they may do amazing things with computerized instruction—imagine equivalents of Apple or Microsoft, with the right incentives to work in higher education—and they may give elite nonprofits some healthy competition in providing innovative, high-quality content.

For now, policy makers, educators and entrepreneurs alike need to recognize that this is a revolution, but also a complicated process that must unfold over time before its benefits are realized. The MITs and Harvards still don't really know what they are doing, but that is normal at this early stage of massive change. Early stumbles and missteps which edX may or may not be will show the way toward what works, and what is the right balance between online and traditional learning.

But like countless industries before it, higher education will be transformed by technology—and for the better. Elite players and upstarts, not-for-profits and for-profits, will compete for students, government funds and investment in pursuit of the future blend of service that works for their respective institutions and for the students each aims to serve. Moe is professor of political science at Stanford and a senior fellow at Hoover.

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JOHN E. Este reto puede ser superado. Por otra parte, los colegios y universidades, cualquiera que sea su estado, no es necesario poner un profesor en cada aula. Colegio X por lo tanto puede ofrecer conferencias estelares de los mejores profesores del mundo-y hacer a nivel local lo que hace mejor, una persona a otra.

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No descarte las universidades con fines de lucro y universidades, ya sea. El Sr. De lo contrario, el efecto positivo generado por la EP se diluye. Referencias consultadas: Burger, K. How does early childhood care and education affect cognitive development?

An international review of the effects of early interventions for children from different social backgrounds. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 25, Greenberg, J. The impact of maternal education on children's enrollment in early childhood education and care. Children and Youth Services Review, 33, Henry, G.

Progresismo el octavo pasajero pdf file

Do peers influence children's skill development in preschool? Economics of Education Review, 26, Magnuson, K. Does prekindergarten improve school preparation and performance? Economics of Education Review, 26 , McCarney, K. Quality child care supports the achievement of low income children: Direct and indirect pathways through caregiving and the home environment.

Applied Developmental Psychology, 28, Vandell, D.

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Do effects of early child care extend to age 15 years? Child Development, 81 3 , Vegas, E. Comunicado oficial A partir de las 9. There is no clear link between performance pay for teachers and raising standards in schools, says an international survey.

The OECD has examined data from its Pisa tests to find whether targeting pay improves pupil achievement. Previous studies have identified the importance of high-quality teaching.

But the OECD's Andreas Schleicher says the international evidence reveals "no relationship" between pupils' test results and the use of performance pay. Researchers have already established that top-performing school systems are likely to have teachers who are well-paid or with high social status.

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A previous OECD report advised that raising achievement in schools depended on attracting the best students into teaching with "status, pay and professional autonomy". But raising the pay for all teachers becomes difficult when public spending is under such pressure in many countries. The OECD report says many countries facing financial constraints want to see whether they can increase the rewards for the most effective teachers.

The OECD's membership includes more than 30 of the world's industrialised countries - and about half of these already use some kind of extra pay incentives for specific teachers. As such, the OECD has examined whether such a targeted, performance-related approach delivers better results.

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South Korea, often applauded as an education success story, does not use performance pay. But Finland, often commended for an equitable system, does use an element of performance-based pay. England has a performance threshold linked to higher pay - while France and Germany do not use performance pay. But within this bigger picture of ambiguity there are some identifiable and contradictory trends.

In economies where teachers are relatively poorly paid, performance-related pay can be associated with improved student performance.