I am so pleased to recognize our outstanding State Reporter, Bill Hooks, who succeeded to the position in June Bill is no stranger to the Law Reporting Bureau—having started his career there in —and I know he will continue the great tradition of providing impeccable service for the entire Unified Court System.
Probably the most notable change reflected in the new Style Manual is the continuing movement toward the use of electronic sources.
These changes demonstrate our increasing reliance on technology and the growing acceptance of the use of Internet material. Among other things, we now know how to cite materials such as e-books. I anticipate that this aspect of the Style Manual will only continue to develop.
The Law Reporting Bureau has continued to update the Style Manual to make this resource as clear and easy to use as possible. In addition, as a substantive matter, I would like to point out that the new Manual addresses our relatively recent change over from the Code of Professional Responsibility to the new Rules of Professional Conduct as the rules that govern attorney conduct. As always, the staff of the Law Reporting Bureau deserves the highest praise for its absolutely meticulous work.
On behalf of myself, the Court of Appeals and the rest of the Court System, I express the utmost respect and gratitude for their steadfast commitment to precision and their unmatched skill and dedication.
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It also prescribes the style applied by the Law Reporting Bureau in editing the opinions for publication in the Reports. Although not binding on them, many lawyers find the Manual useful in preparing papers for submission to New York courts. The Style Manual provides a guide for opinion writers and editors in five primary areas: citation, abbreviation, capitalization, quotation, and word style and usage.
Additionally, it specifies for editors the format and typographical standards for the Reports. General References This Manual supplements general citation and style authorities, providing more detail on New York materials and a more specific focus on judicial opinions. General authorities should be consulted on matters not covered by this Manual. Users' input inspired several rule clarifications and additions. Sample citations have been updated and expanded and residual style inconsistencies have been resolved.
Other revisions reflect a continuing commitment to conform to modern style practices and reduce unnecessary variations from standard sources. The most noteworthy of the changes found in this Manual are: 1. Citation Style: In accordance with standard authorities, revised rules clarify that pertinent court and jurisdictional information should be included with full case citations 1.
Continuing previous efforts to eliminate useless citation formalities and to promote cleaner text, the rule 1. The use of supra to indicate that an authority has been cited previously is no longer recommended. Examples of short-form references are included for cases 1. The Edition recognizes the further migration of legal research from print to electronic formats by providing guidance on the elements of electronic citation generally 1.
A revised rule 3. A revised rule 2. Recurrent style inconsistencies have been addressed for pinpoint citation of single page decisions 2. Additional or revised forms of citation have been provided for commission and agency documents and materials 2.
A list of public domain citations adopted by various jurisdictions was added Appendix 2 [D].
Abbreviation: New abbreviations have been added for case names, law reports, appellate history terms and statutes Appendixes 1 - 4. Quotations: The Style Manual's section on omitting or altering language in quoted material has been reordered for clarity and revised to allow for more precise use of ellipses, to clarify the style where language is both altered and omitted and to provide guidance where emphasis is omitted.
New rules illustrate the use of an ellipsis with a period The style for joint alterations and omissions has been added to rule In accordance with standard authorities, omission of emphasis that appears in the source is indicated by "emphasis omitted" Word Style and Usage: The rule A clarification encourages authors to omit irrelevant information and additional examples of information that should be redacted have been included. Examples have been added to the list showing the style of particular words, with a continuing modern style emphasis on reducing excessive use of hyphens and italics Appendix 5 , and recurrent style inconsistencies have been addressed by new illustrations e.
Other Notes: The rules on capitalization are essentially unchanged and reflect the modern practice to avoid excessive capitalization. The rules on formulation of case summaries appeal statements have been updated and examples have been added Appendix 8. Guidance is now included for formatting data tables incorporated in decisions The use of small capitals in the text of opinions and footnotes has been eliminated The model citational footnote opinion has been updated Appendix 7.
Exceptions and Changes Deviations from the rules stated in this Manual are permitted where application of a rule would adversely affect the clarity or readability of an opinion. Send them to: reporter courts. Use of the Internet version is strongly recommended not only for updates, but also to gain the advantages of word searching, hypertext linking and coordinating use of the Manual with the Official Case Name and Citation Locator.
In this format, citations in footnotes, if any, are styled as provided in section 1. Unless otherwise indicated, the examples in this Manual are shown as citations within parentheses. The facts in this decision are not unusual see George C. Miller Brick Co.
People v Moran , 2 AD3d [1st Dept ]. Place the parenthetical within the sentence as in first example above if it relates to the sentence alone.
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Place it outside the sentence as in second example above if it relates to more than one preceding sentence. If used, the citational footnote style should be used for all citations in the opinion.
See Appendix 7 for a model opinion formatted in the citational footnote style.
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Apply the following rules based upon the location where citational content would be placed in the traditional format. The footnote number should be placed at the point in the text where the citation would appear if the citation were placed in the text.
Example: The situation in Rogers v Rogers 1 mirrors the situation in this decision. Place the citation in the footnote and eliminate the parentheses enclosing the citation. Example: The facts in this decision are not unusual. See George C. Example: 2. The effect of the deregulation on the structure and organization of the natural gas industry is detailed in General Motors Corp. Example: County Court denied defendant's motion; 16 the Appellate Division reversed, vacated the judgment, restored the indictment to the preplea stage and reinstated the prosecution's notice of intent to seek the death penalty.
A full citation may be repeated if a short form or id. A short-form reference should provide sufficient information to avoid confusion with distinct previous citations.
2015 Cumulative Electronic Update changes appear in red.
The shortened form of the case name is usually the name of the first nongovernmental party for example, " Krom " for " People v Krom " and " Albouyeh " for " Albouyeh v County of Suffolk ". Popular names for cases for example, "the Central Park Jogger case" may be used when desired. Kaye et al. Do not place a comma between the signal and citation. Consult standard citation authorities for information regarding the use of signals, their order when using two or more and the order of authorities after each signal.
The following examples illustrate the use of introductory signals: e.
CPL A citation to an electronic source requires information identifying the particular material referenced, and is likely also to require information about the location where the source of that material may be accessed e.
Where the location or content of an electronic source is subject to change, a "last updated" or "last accessed" date should be included. If the format of an electronic source prevents precise citation to particular material referenced, add the necessary navigation instructions to the citation. Pinpoint citation is not possible if the electronic source is in a format e.
HTML that does not contain fixed reference points, but may be included if the source is in a format e. PDF that contains fixed pagination, paragraph numbering or location numbers. Electronic government sources designated "official" or authenticated by some method involving encryption should be cited when available. The rules for citing specific types of electronic sources appear in the sections listed below.
Westlaw, Lexis are cited as indicated in section 2. Opinions published in the online version of the New York Law Journal are cited as indicated in section 2. The case name for a decision is also provided in the "Cite Title As" field in the online Official Reports.
Case names found in the Table of Cases in the printed Official Reports should not be used when they differ from the electronic version. To cite a companion case whose title is different than the official case name, formulate a case name as described in section 2.
Also see examples of case names in Appendix 6. Retain the abbreviations provided. If the case does not appear in the Supreme Court's listing, formulate a case name using the citation naming conventions found in standard citation manuals and apply the abbreviations listed in Appendix 1.
In either event, use the abbreviations listed in Appendix 1. LLC , 60 AD3d , , n 3 [1st Dept ] People v Kozlowski , 11 NY3d , and n 10  4 Citation Referencing Multiple Page Quotation In citing a single quotation that runs over two or more pages, give the pages at which it begins and ends, separated by a hyphen, rather than a comma: Matter of Sayeh R.
Side Serv. Kerson Co.
Operating Auth. Edkins v Board of Educ. Clare's Hosp. Do not include optional information in references to previously cited authority. See section 1. Each opinion is assigned a Miscellaneous 3d citation as well as a unique Slip Opinion citation that is paginated to permit pinpoint page references.