The following is a list of allusions in Marthandavarma , the historical novel by C.
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Raman Pillai. According to V. Nagam Aiya, during the reign of king Rama Varma besides the troubles caused by confederate chiefs and nobles such as Ettuveetiil Pillas and Madambies, the other petty chieftains were also refracted from contributing to the revenue of the state; and sovereign was unable to defend the atrocities of armed dacoits, as there were not enough money and manpower with the state.
Velu Pillai cites the references of payment to Madurai from Travancore.
Marthanda Varma Drama
In the novel, while Rama Varma and Thirumukhathu Pilla headed to Tiruchirappalli, prince Marthanda Varma and Ananthapadmanabhan were staying at Nagercoil , from where latter among the duo at Nagercoil heads to his mother's house following the news of her illness. While Ananthapadmanabhan was away, the prince was chased away by the men of Padmanabhan Thambi and an attempt on his life was made at Kalliyankattu temple.
The incident is further referred as the escape of Marthanda Varma as a Brahmin. Venugopalan cites the references of the incident in the history of Travancore and Marthandamahathmyam Kilippattu. At the temple Marthanda Varma was aided by the temple priest to escape in the outfit of the latter, and the priest was killed by the attackers as he was in the outfit of the former.
There are references in the novel about attempts on the life of Marthanda Varma by his enemies as his successful escapes through the groove at Panathara, the Ezhava house at Perunkadavila, and the Nedumangad fort.
According to the legends, after evading the Ettuveettil Pillas and their men at Dhanuvachapuram, [A] Eithukondamkani, [B] and Marayamuttom, [C] when Marthanda Varma was refreshing himself at a river near to Malakulangara [D] he was spotted by the men of Thambi brothers and in urgency to escape from them, he headed into a nearby Ezhava house, Alayil Puthur Veedu at Perumkadavila, where he was aided by the Kalipanikkathi Lady Kali to hide under the rattan enclosures.
The men of Thambi brothers were unsuccessful in finding the prince.
In the novel, while running away from Velu Kuruppu and his men, Marthanda Varma is helped by a mad Channan who hides him in a tree and misdirects his pursuers.
According to Dr. Venugopalan, the above account of actions is a collaboration of two situations where Marthanda Varma escaped from the enemies. While running away from the chasers, he was suggested by a Channan plougher of the nearby field to hide inside the hollow statue of the elephant at the adjacent temple of Shasthavu. When the chasers reached the cultivation field and questioned the plougher, he misdirected them to the southern provinces.
In another occasion, when Marthanda Varma was chased by the enemies, he evaded them by hiding inside the big hole within a jack tree at the Neyyattinkara Sree Krishna Swami Temple. The incident is referred as the attempt to murder the little prince, Karthika Thirunal Rama Varma and his mother by Ramanamadathil Pilla along with his men in Kollavarsham , while the mother-son duo were heading from Trivandrum to Attingal, but only to evade the attempt with the help of Kilimanoor Koithampuran Lord of Kilimanoor , who led the duo to a nearby safe village and took their place in the palanquin en route, confronted the attackers and eventually got killed, as described in the History of Travancore from the Earliest Times by P.
Shangoony Menon. Nagam Aiya states the incident inline with the version by P. Velu Pillai supports the version of Pachumuthathu and condemns the version by P. Shangoony Menon; which is cited by Dr.
Ibrahim Kunju, who points out the deliberation of T. Velu Pillai in supporting the version of Pachumuthathu by purposefully avoiding the references of incident in the British records, Letters to Tellicherry [G]. Ibrahim Kunju refers to the legend that Thambi brothers made a claim to the throne of Venad during the final period of king Rama Varma as they were the linear descendants, which was against the tradition of collateral descent through maternal nephew followed by the Venad kingdom in selecting the heir to the throne.
Parameswaran Nair claims that there is a legend in which Rama Varma promises to his spouse, Abhirama to let the children she will bear, to ascend to the throne of Venad; however Dr.
Venugopalan states that the above account of legend is not valid as Rama Varma was neither the king nor the next heir to the throne during the early days of his relationship with his spouse and he ruled the kingdom only in the last five years of his life.
Shangoony Menon and V. Nagam Aiya state that Thambi brothers were persuaded by feudatory chiefs and nobles, Ettuveettil Pillas and Madambies to make the claim to the throne.
In the novel, it is mentioned that Ettuveettil Pillas gave assurance to Padmanabhan Thambi that they will make him king after the period of king Rama Varma. The heirship claim of the Thambi brothers against the then existing custom in Venad led them to seek the aid of foreign forces to confront Marthanda Varma.
According to P. Shangoony Menon the elder Thambi brother, Papu Thamby went to Tiruchirapalli in Kollavarsham to seek aid from Pandyan governor.
Nagam Aiya states that the Thambi brothers went together to Tiruchirapalli in to seek aid from Pandyan governor. Velu Pillai mentions that the Thambi brothers secured the mercenary services of a foreign contingent in Kollavarsham Ettuveettil Pillas formed a council at the convention area of an inn at Venganoor , where they held consultation about the plans against the king Marthanda Varma and, the members resolved to assassinate the king on the Aaraattu festival day during his procession.
The decision was scripted as palm leaf notes and hidden in the footwears of messengers. Nagam Aiya, the conference happened sometime after Kollavarsham Ibrahim Kunju states that above event as happened in Kollavarsham The council passes the resolution to assassinate the prince Marthanda Varma after the demise of king Rama Varma, when the prince will be heading back after the last rites of the then deceased King.
A council note of the same is prepared for Padmanabhan Thambi and entrusts the same to Sundarayyan, who on the way back puts up a fight with Ananthapadmanabhan disguised as a beggar, who tries to snatch the council note and, eventually the note is lost in the Killiyar. In the novel the above events are shown as happened in Kollavarsham before the accession of Marthanda Varma. When the foreign contingent arrived under Azhagappa Mudaliyar as an aid to Thambi brothers from Pandyan governor, the Thambi duo joins them at the Nanjinadu camp to mobilize the forces; meanwhile Marthanda Varma tried to arrange necessary counter forces at Kalkulam , however as there were not enough forces to confront the contingent and men of Thambi duo, Marthanda Varma negotiated with the officers of Azhagappa Mudaliyar, lieutenant Kanimiyavu and captain Kapalipara Sokkalingam Pillai, thus secured a safe passage out of Kalkulam fort with an escort to Neyyattinkara , in order to go to Perakathavazhi at Kollam ; en route, on realizing that the little prince Karthika Thirunal Rama Varma and his royal mother at Puthenkotta [H] were about to be attacked by a team led by Kudamon Pilla, Karakulathu Pilla and Vanchikoottathu Pilla, Marthanda Varma rushed there and moved the mother-son duo to Attingal and headed to Kollam.
Meanwhile, the team led by Azhagappa Mudaliyar and Thambi brothers started from Kalkulam to Thiruvananthapuram, where they tried to take the possession of treasure at Sree Padmanabha Swamy temple , but only to foil the plans by the local inhabitants, to whom the charge was entrusted by Vanchikoottathu Pilla before he moved from there.
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The protests by local people made the team of Thambi brothers to retract, so Azhagappa Mudaliyar and forces headed to eastern provinces. The men of Thambi brothers and Ettuveettil Pillas together plan to siege the palace to slay the prince, however prince Marthanda Varma evade the coup as he is timely tipped by Subhadra, who also insists to move the little prince and the mother to a safe place. When the team led by Thambi brothers and Ettuveettil Pillas are unsuccessful in locating Marthanda Varma and little prince, they head to Manacaud.
The above course of events is shown in the novel as happened five days after the demise of king Rama Varma. Nagam Aiya state that Marthanda Varma ascended to the throne in Kollavarsham Velu Pillai mentions the commencement of Marthanda Varma's reign in Kollavarsham Ibrahim Kunju mentions that the accession happened in Kollavarsham Shangoony Menon, king Rama Varma died of short illness in Kollavarsham Nagam Aiya also states that king Rama Varma died in the year According to Prof.
Krishna Pillai and Prof. Anandakuttan Nair, the demise of king Rama Varma mentioned in the novel falls in the timeline of Kollavarsham Dalawa Arumukham Pilla was once detained by foreign forces camped at Thrikkanamkudi, [J] because the payment for them as per the agreement with the king Rama Varma was in arrears.
The required payment was almost done through the merchants at Kottar , however Dalawa was not released and the release was accomplished by the then commander-in-chief, Kumarswami Pillai.
Shangoony Menon and T. Velu Pillai, the detention and release happened post the accession of Marthanda Varma. Marthanda Varma marched to Desinganadu in Kollavarsham because the king of Desinganadu invaded and conquered the eastern portions of Kallada , which was under Venad. The first edition of the novel mentions that Padmanabhan Thambi is killed by Marthanda Varma's accomplices in a precognitive narration, which is removed from the further editions. Nagam Aiya, Pappu Thambi was killed at Nagercoil palace by the guards of Marthanda Varma, which the former records as happened in Kollavarsham and the latter mentions that it happened a few months after the Arattu feestival at Sree Padmanabhaswamy Temple in The novel refers the Kalipankulam incident, which according to P.
Nagam Aiya was that the five princes who were the offspring of Umayamma Rani were murdered by men of confederates Madampimar. Velu Pillai points that Umayamma Rani never had any children. The novel also refers to the attack of a Mukilan during when, a few families were converted as Mohammedians after circumcision; which implies the conquest of Mukilan a petty chieftain under Moghul emperor in Travancore during Kollavarsham —, followed by the circumcision and proselytization of Nair family members to Islam.
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There is a reference to the tragedy of Iravikutti Pilla, who was the commander-in-chief during the period of Unni Kerala Varma Kollavarsham — Iravikutti Pilla was killed by the forces of Thirumalai Nayak in the battle, to which he headed by ignoring the bad omens. Venad is the kingdom in which the events of novel take place; in the novel, the king Rama Varma is referred as the ruler of Venad.
The areas of Venad that are mentioned in the novel are as follows:. The novel presents that practices of Indian traditional medicine and Unani traditional medicine were prevailed in Venad during the timeline of the story. The novel mentions about the languages Malayalam , Tamil and Hindustani , among which the former one is used primarily for the narration with the adopted words from Tamil, Sanskrit , English , Hindustani, Persian and a conversation in a substitution cipher, Mulabhadra.
The primary language used in the novel.
In the novel, prince Marthanda Varma mentions that the diglot at the pathan camp seems to very good in Malayalam. The novel presents the ambiguous usages of the term nazhika [a] as a unit of measure for time and as a unit of measure for length.
Nazhika 2 is a unit of measure for length prevailed in yesteryear Kerala at different denominations. Vasu cites two variants of the unit of measurement, among which the first one is termed as a "regional method" that equates 1 Nazhika to 1. Vyakhyanakosam states that 1 Nazhika corresponds to approximately [Q] 1.
Venugopalan notes that some of the Sanskrit usages are changed in the revised edition. Tamil is extensively used in the conversations involving Sundarayyan, mad Channan, and the other Channar characters. In the novel, it is mentioned that Beeram Khan talks to the servant of Subhadra in Tamil. The novel states that the pathan camp members converse in Hindustani. In the novel, Ananthapadmanabhan helps Mangoikkal Kuruppu to learn the language, and while confronted by Parukutty and her mother inside the dungeon at Chembakassery, the two men converse in Hindustani.
The novel presents that Sundarayyan also knows Hindustani, in which he shouts while fighting with Beeram Khan. Mulabhadra or Moolabadri is a way of a substitution ciphering prevailed in Travancore using Malayalam script. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from List of Allusions in Marthandavarma novel. Wikimedia list article.
MARTHANDA VARMA NOVEL EBOOK
Main article: Marthandavarma novel. Foreign areas and kingdoms [ edit ] Nanjinadu — Nanjinadu is referred as the nearby state on the southern side of Venad. Desinganadu — Desinganadu is referred a country on the northern side of Venad; to where Marthanda Varma marches during his conquests in Kollavarsham It is also presented as one of regions where Padmanabhan Thambi is known for his fame.
Chembakassery — In the novel, Chembakassery is mentioned as an outside region where Padmanabhan Thambi is known for his fame.
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Kozhikode — Kozhikode is mentioned as one of the regions where Padmanabhan Thambi is known for his fame. Kancheepuram — The novel refers to Kancheepuram , where the traditional medicine practitioners consider Hakkim as equival to Vagbhata for his medical excellency.
Arcot — Arcot is mentioned as one of the regions where Padmanabhan Thambi is known for his fame.