Manchester Driving Behavior Questionnaire Pdf

Manchester driving behavior questionnaire pdf

Although long recognized in the clinical literature, problematic behavior characteristic of anxious drivers has received little empirical attention. The current research details development of a measure of anxious driving behavior conducted across three studies. Performance deficits evidenced convergent associations with perceived driving skill and were broadly related to driving fear.

Internal consistencies were adequate, although some test-retest reliabilities were marginal in the unselected college sample.

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These data provide preliminary evidence for utility of the measure for both research and clinical practice. Psychological distress, occupational impairment, and restricted interpersonal functioning as a consequence of driving anxiety is well documented in the clinical and traffic safety literatures e. Assessment in this area has largely emphasized the quantification of subjective driving fear and overt travel avoidance e. Empirical and anecdotal evidence suggests that anxious drivers engage in maladaptive behaviors that may place themselves and others at increased risk of accidents and violations.

The purpose of the current research was to develop an empirical measure designed to assess the occurrence of potentially problematic anxiety-related driving behavior. Interest in driving-related anxiety and its impact on functioning has surged over the past two decades e.

Manchester driving behavior questionnaire pdf

Much of this literature examines driving anxiety from the perspective of specific phobia and posttraumatic stress disorder PTSD , but recent data indicates that a more broad perspective on driving-related anxiety is warranted. First, the negative consequences of driving anxiety appear to extend beyond subjective driving fear and overt travel avoidance. Both empirical reviews and clinical literature note a range of problematic driving behavior e.

The Driving Behavior Survey: Scale construction and validation

Taylor, ; S. Increased occurrence of general driving errors also has been noted among anxious drivers using both self-report and observational methods e. In a recent example, J.

Taylor et al. Frequency of observer-rated driving errors was higher among anxious drivers, and anxious drivers rated their own driving skill more poorly than did non-anxious controls.

Manchester driving behavior questionnaire pdf

Although theoretical models predict a complex relationship between anxiety and driving performance see J. Second, the population of individuals prone to anxious driving behavior may be larger than previously recognized. Whereas the larger literature typically has examined driving anxiety among accident survivors e.

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Further comparison of anxious drivers with and without accident histories suggest comparable levels of fear, functional interference, response to fear-related cues, and general help-seeking behavior across groups J. The focus of specific fear in this population is equally diverse. Evidence of heterogeneity in the comorbidity, etiology, and focus of specific fear in this population supports expanding the investigation of driving anxiety and its impact on driving behavior J.

The goal of the current research was to create a measure assessing a range of anxious driving behaviors. Assessment efforts in the driving anxiety literature primarily emphasize the quantification of subjective anxiety and overt travel avoidance e.

Peter, although some measures have explored specific subsets of driving behavior. Furthermore, the psychometric properties of the SBQ and FDI remain largely unexamined, and neither measure is available in the public domain. Development of a broad-based measure specific to the assessment of anxious driving behavior is intended to compliment existing measures and to facilitate research on the behavioral consequences of driving anxiety.

Development of the current assessment took place across three separate studies. Study 1 outlines the initial scale construction and an exploratory examination of item factor structure.

Manchester driving behavior questionnaire pdf

Study 2 details the inclusion of additional indicators based on the results of Study 1, a reexamination of the factor structure of the revised item pool, and an evaluation of the internal consistency of measure subscales. Associations with driving skill and travel avoidance also are explored.

Study 3 continues development efforts through a confirmatory examination of the factor structure derived from Studies 1 and 2.

Still Safe On The Road? - Mature Driver Assessment

Test-retest reliabilities are provided as well as continued examination of subscales validity. Undergraduate samples were used for initial scale development. Unselected college samples were expected to exhibit considerable variability with respect to reported driving anxiety, problematic driving behavior, and general driving history e. Examination of anxious driving behavior among undergraduate samples also is consistent with a more general effort to broaden the study of driving anxiety e.

The aim of Study 1 was to generate a broad item pool representative of anxious driving behavior.

Manchester driving behavior questionnaire pdf

For the purposes of the present research, anxious driving behavior is conceptualized as an excessive increase, decrease, or disorganization of behavior occurring as a consequence of anxiety during operation of a motor vehicle. The behaviors of interest may be - but are not necessarily - reckless, inappropriate, or dangerous. Resources for initial item development included previous research e.

Thirty-nine indicators were included in the initial item pool.

Materials and Method

Given evidence that driving anxiety may be most closely associated with the frequency of problematic behaviors as opposed to specific types of behavior; J. Instruction sets that accompany a measure also are important for contextualizing participant response e. Instructions for the current assessment specifically directed participants to indicate how frequently they engage in each driving behavior during situations that result in anxiety, tension, or discomfort see Appendix A. Items were rated on a 7-point Never to Always Likert scale.

Driving Behavior Survey Often times situations occur while people are driving which make them nervous e. Below is a list of behaviors that may or may not be relevant to you in these situations.

Manchester driving behavior questionnaire pdf

Based on your personal experience, please indicate how frequently you perform each of these items when a stressful driving situation occurs which makes you nervous, anxious, tense, or uncomfortable.

Please indicate what you generally do, not what you think you should do. Note : DBS subscales scored as the mean of endorsed items. Two hundred forty-five students recruited from undergraduate psychology courses participated in the study.

Students received experimental credit for their participation. Characteristics of the final sample are summarized in Table 1.

Examination of item factor structure was conducted using SPSS In this procedure, eigenvalues extracted from experimental data i. Components with eigenvalues exceeding those extracted from the random data are considered for retention.


Components with eigenvalues less than those extracted from the random data are considered spurious and are not considered for retention.

For the current study, ten randomly generated datasets equal in size to the experimental data were constructed. Eigenvalues obtained from principal component analyses PCA of each random set was averaged and plotted against eigenvalues obtained from PCA of the experimental data.

These criteria were used as a conservative attempt to reduce ambiguity surrounding items with marginal or complex loadings.

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All final solutions were rotated to simple structure using Varimax rotation. Item distributions and covariances were examined prior to analysis to determine factorability and concordance with the assumptions of multivariate analysis.

Parallel analysis strongly suggested a 3-factor solution to these data see Fig. Principal axis factoring with Varimax rotation was used to extract three factors accounting for Communalities i. A summary of unique factor loadings is provided in Table 2.

Of the initial item pool, twelve indicators loaded uniquely on the first factor. Subsequent items included various driving mistakes suggesting a dimension of anxiety-based performance errors. The final factor contained a total of five indicators. Eigenvalues for principal components analyses of Study 1 39 items and random data generated for parallel analysis.

Manchester driving behavior questionnaire pdf

Eigenvalues for principal components analyses of Study 2 44 items and random data generated for parallel analysis. Parallel analysis also suggested a possible 4-factor structure to these data.

The Driving Behavior Survey: Scale construction and validation

Given these results, the 3-factor solution was chosen for further exploration. Results from Study 1 closely parallel data from the existing clinical and driving safety literatures.

The range of behavior reported in the current sample is consistent with calls to broaden the examination of driving-related anxiety J. Furthermore, evidence of anxiety-based performance deficits parallel literature suggesting possible skill-based deficits among anxious drivers J. Previous studies have explored the occurrence and treatment of driving-related anger e.

The primary aim of Study 2 was to strengthen factors observed in Study 1. Three hundred students recruited from undergraduate psychology courses received experimental credit for participation in the study.

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Competence in specific driving situations e. Total DSQ scores were calculated by dividing the response average by Total scores range from 0 to 10 with higher scores indicating greater perceptions of skill. Peter, is a item measure intended to assess frequency of overt travel avoidance over the previous week.

Avoidance of specific driving scenarios is rated on a 4-point Likert scale 0, Rarely to 3, Most of the time. Items are summed to provide a total score range 0 — 60 with higher scores indicating greater frequency of travel avoidance.

Iranian Version of Manchester Driving Behavior Questionnaire (MDBQ): Psychometric ‎Properties

Factor analysis of the expanded item pool paralleled procedures outlined in Study 1. Item distributions and covariances of the sample data indicated suitability for factor analysis. Parallel analyses of the expanded item pool suggested the possibility of 3-, 4-, and 5-factor solutions see Fig.

The 3-factor extraction accounted for Table 2 provides a summary of significant factor loadings obtained in Study 2. The second factor contained nine items congruent with those loading on the performance deficit subscale from in Study 1. Four- and five-factor solutions to these data also were examined.


The initial three factors of the 4- and 5-factor extractions were generally consistent with those observed in the 3-factor solution. However, the remaining dimensions of the 4- and 5-factor solutions contained few salient loadings and interpretation of the remaining factors was ambiguous. Considerations for retention included magnitude of factor loadings, consistency across samples, and conceptual clarity.

DBS subscales were calculated as the mean of endorsed items range 1 — 7 with higher scores indicating greater frequency of anxious behavior. Small to moderate correlations between DBS subscales provide evidence for their validity as distinct behavioral dimensions see Table 3.