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- Why conspiracy theories are rational to believe
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- Ebook Conspiracy Theories: A Critical Introduction, by Dr Jovan Byford
- A Critical Introduction
- Download Conspiracy Theories: A Critical Introduction by Jovan Byford (auth.) PDF
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In the past, most philosophers have ignored the topic, vaguely supposing that conspiracy theories are obviously irrational and that they can be easily dismissed.
The current philosophical interest in the subject results from a realisation that this is not so.
Jovan byford conspiracy theories pdf download
Some philosophers have taken up the challenge of identifying and explaining the flaws of conspiracy theories. Other philosophers have argued that conspiracy theories do not deserve their bad reputation, and that conspiracy theorists do not deserve their reputation for irrationality. This book represents both sides of this important debate.
Why conspiracy theories are rational to believe
Aimed at a broad philosophical community, including epistemologists, political philosophers, and philosophers of history. It represents a significant contribution to the growing interdisciplinary debate about conspiracy theories.
In this enlightening tour of conspiracy theories, Mark Fenster guides readers through this shadowy world and analyzes its complex role in American culture and politics. Fenster argues that conspiracy theories are a form of popular political interpretation and contends that understanding how they circulate through mass culture helps us better understand our society as a whole.
Fenster analyzes the "conspiracy community" of radio shows, magazine and book publishers, Internet resources, and role-playing games that promote these theories. In this world, the very denial of a conspiracy's existence becomes proof that it exists, and the truth is always "out there.
Fenster's progressive critique of conspiracy theories both recognizes the secrecy and inequities of power in contemporary politics and economics and works toward effective political engagement. Probing conspiracy theory's tendencies toward scapegoating, racism, and fascism, as well as Hofstadter's centrist acceptance of a postwar American"consensus, " he advocates what conspiracy theory wants but cannot articulate: a more inclusive, engaging political culture.
It addresses the prevalence of conspiracy theories in the phenomenon of Donald Trump and Trumpism, and the paranoid style of American politics that existed long before, first identified with Richard Hofstadter.
Hellinger looks critically at both those who hold conspiracy theory beliefs and those who rush to dismiss them. Hellinger argues that we need to acknowledge that the exercise of power by elites is very often conspiratorial and invites both realistic and outlandish conspiracy theories.
How we parse the realistic from the outlandish demands more attention than typically accorded in academia and journalism. Tensions between global hegemony and democratic legitimacy become visible in populist theories of conspiracy, both on the left and the right.
He argues that we do not live in an age in which conspiracy theories are more profligate, but that we do live in an age in which they offer a more profound challenge to the constituted state than ever before.
The Holocaust is a myth promoted to serve Jewish interests. The shootings at Sandy Hook Elementary School were a false flag operation. Climate change is a hoax perpetrated by the Chinese government.
These are all conspiracy theories. A glance online or at bestseller lists reveals how popular some of them are.
Ebook Conspiracy Theories: A Critical Introduction, by Dr Jovan Byford
Even if there is plenty of evidence to disprove them, people persist in propagating them. Philosopher Quassim Cassam explains how conspiracy theories are different from ordinary theories about conspiracies. He argues that conspiracy theories are forms of propaganda and their function is to promote a political agenda.
Although conspiracy theories are sometimes defended on the grounds that they uncover evidence of bad behaviour by political leaders, they do much more harm than good, with some resulting in the deaths of large numbers of people. There can be no clearer indication that something has gone wrong with our intellectual and political culture than the fact that conspiracy theories have become mainstream.
When they are dangerous, we cannot afford to ignore them. At the same time, refuting them by rational argument is difficult because conspiracy theorists discount or reject evidence that disproves their theories. As conspiracy theories are so often smokescreens for political ends, we need to come up with political as well as intellectual responses if we are to have any hope of defeating them.
Heathens are winning the war on Christmas.
Barack Obama is a radical Muslim. The Virgin Mary is in the grilled cheese.
A Critical Introduction
That's what it's like to live inside the mind of the 21st-century conspiracy theorist, who believes that all you have to do is look at the signs and you'll see what's really going on. This book will appeal to the vast majority of readers who possess the common sense gene, as well as the vocal minority who believe they're living in a world in which secret tribunals pull the strings and influence the outcome of everything from terrorist attacks to professional sporting events.
Everyone believes at least one, but given the number of conspiracy theories, it is more likely that everyone believes a few.
Some people have a worldview defined by them. Conspiracy theories are just another reminder that people disagree about many things, including truth. These disagreements have always existed and always will.
Download Conspiracy Theories: A Critical Introduction by Jovan Byford (auth.) PDF
We have to live with conspiracy theories and with the people who believe them. The only way to do this is have compassion and tolerance for others, and to hold our own beliefs to high standards. This book introduces students to the research into conspiracy theories and the people who propagate and believe them. In doing so, it addresses the psychological, sociological, and political sources of conspiracy theorizing Uscinski rigorously analyzes the most current arguments and evidence while providing numerous real-world examples so students can contextualize the current debates.
Each chapter addresses important current questions, provides conceptual tools, defines important terms, and introduces the appropriate methods of analysis. Has anyone seen Obama's birth certificate?
Conspiracy theories have been around for years, often surrounding the lives of political figures and national tragedies. In recent years, conspiracy theories have been moving from the fringes to the mainstream, receiving national attention from Alex Jones' Infowars, and President Donald Trump's embrace of far-right conspiracies.
The articles in this book trace conspiracy theories from their historical foundations to their modern representations, showing how these ideas can grow until they have a life of their own. Media literacy questions and terms will challenge readers to further analyze reporting styles, devices, and the veracity of sources.
With Conspiracy Theories you'll learn about all the fascinating and famous conspiracies, from faked celebrity deaths to fairies in the garden. Toggle navigation Menu. Search for:.