To irrigate their crops they built dikes and dug canals.
They were forced to work together and so an organized kingdom emerged called Van Lang. However, in the 2nd century BC, the Chinese conquered the area.
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The Chinese ruled northern Vietnam for more than 1, years and Chinese civilization had a great impact on the Vietnamese. However in South Vietnam there was Indian influence. From the 1st century to the 6th century AD the southernmost part of Vietnam was part of a state called Funan. They formed an independent state. However, in 43 AD the Chinese crushed the rebellion and the sisters killed themselves.
The Chinese continued to rule North Vietnam until the 10th century. In the 13th century the Mongols invaded Vietnam three times. In and they captured the capital but each time they soon withdrew.
Vietnam War Summary—Overview of the Conflict
However in the early 15th century China tried to regain control of North Vietnam. In they occupied the country but their rule was resisted. Under his successors, the central Vietnamese state of Champa became a vassal state of North Vietnam.
However in the early 16th century the power of the Le dynasty declined. During the 17th and 18th centuries, two rival families effectively held power, the Trinh in the north and the Nguyen in the south.
In the s a rebellion began in the town of Tay Son. Three brothers called Nguyen led it. Gradually they took territory from the Nguyen lords in the south and the Trinh lords in the north. However, a Nguyen lord named Nguyen Anh escaped. He raised an army and from he pushed back the rebels. Under him, Vietnam became a strong united kingdom.
Meanwhile the Portuguese reached Vietnam by sea in In their wake came missionaries, first Dominicans then Jesuits and the Roman Catholic Church made some headway in Vietnam. In the late 19th century Vietnam became a French colony.
However, the French took over Vietnam in stages. In they captured Saigon. Finally in North and Central Vietnam was forced to become a French protectorate. The French built infrastructure in Vietnam such as the Saigon to Hanoi railway. They also built roads and bridges. However, the building was funded by heavy taxation. Naturally, the Vietnamese wanted independence.
The Communists spearheaded the struggle for independence. In it became the Vietnamese Communist party. In the Germans defeated France.
Japan decided to take advantage of French weakness and they forced the French government to allow Japanese troops to occupy French Indo-China, although they left the French administration in place. Meanwhile, in March , the Japanese took control of the administration of Vietnam and when Japan surrendered on 15 August they left a power vacuum.
Ho Chi Minh moved quickly to fill the vacuum. He called for an uprising called the August Revolution and the Viet Minh took control of most of Vietnam. However, the great powers ignored the Vietnamese demand for independence. Under the terms of the Potsdam Conference Japanese troops south of the 16th parallel surrendered to the British.
Those to the north surrendered to the Nationalist Chinese. However the French army soon arrived in the south to take control from the British.
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In the north Chinese troops moved in. However, Ho Chi Minh soon decided that the French were the lesser of two evils and he signed a treaty, which said that French troops should replace Chinese troops in North Vietnam for 5 years. In return, the French promised to recognized Vietnam as a 'free state'. However it soon became clear the French had no intention of giving up power in Vietnam and fighting broke out between them and the Viet Minh.
For eight years the Viet Minh fought a guerrilla war against the French. Finally, in they surrounded a French army at Dien Bien Phu.
History of Vietnam
After a siege lasting 57 days, the French were forced to surrender. By then it was clear that the French could not win the war and both sides met at the Geneva Conference to end the war. They agreed that Vietnam would be temporarily divided at the 17th parallel and elections would be held by 20 July However, no elections were held and the division of Vietnam became permanent.
However in the early s South Vietnam was rocked by demonstrations and in Diem was ousted in a coup.
Meanwhile in the North Vietnamese began a long guerrilla war to reunite Vietnam under Communist rule. The Northern Guerrillas were known as the Vietcong. As early as the US sent military advisers to South Vietnam. Financially they supported the French and later the South Vietnamese government.
Book:History of Vietnam
Then in two US ships were supposedly subject to 'unprovoked' attacks by the North Vietnamese. First the Maddox was attacked. Two days later the Maddox and a ship called the C Turner Joy claimed they were both attacked. It is doubtful if this attack ever took place. The Americans then bombed the north and Congress passed the Tonkin Gulf Resolution allowing the president to take 'all necessary measures' to prevent 'further aggression'.
As a result by December there were , US soldiers in Vietnam and by the end of there were nearly half a million.
However the Vietcong continued their guerrilla war. They suffered heavy losses but afterwards the Americans gradually withdrew from Vietnam.
In January they signed a ceasefire and the remaining American troops withdrew. The South Vietnamese continued to fight the Vietcong alone. However in the early months of South Vietnamese resistance collapsed and on 30 April the North Vietnamese captured Saigon.
Vietnam was reunited under Communist rule. Then in the late s the Khmer Rouge made attacks on Vietnam.
So in the Vietnamese occupied Cambodia. They stayed until Meanwhile in the Vietnamese government introduced market reforms. As a result the Vietnamese economy began to grow rapidly.
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In the USA lifted an economic embargo on Vietnam and in diplomatic relations were restored. Today the Vietnamese economy is booming.
Vietnam is becoming more and more prosperous. Tourism is an important industry in Vietnam. Furthermore a stock exchange opened in Vietnam in Today the population of Vietnam is 96 million. A brief history of Thailand. A brief history of Cambodia. A brief history of India. A brief history of Indonesia.