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The history of India includes the prehistoric settlements and societies in the Indian subcontinent ; the advancement of civilisation from the Indus Valley Civilisation to the eventual blending of the Indo-Aryan culture to form the Vedic Civilisation ;  the rise of Hinduism , Jainism and Buddhism ;   the onset of a succession of powerful dynasties and empires for more than three millennia throughout various geographic areas of the subcontinent, including the growth of nomadic Central Asian Muslim dominions during the Medieval period intertwined with Hindu powers;   the advent of European traders resulting in the establishment of the British rule ; and the subsequent independence movement that led to the Partition of India and the creation of the Republic of India.
Evidence of anatomically modern humans in the Indian subcontinent is recorded as long as 75, years ago, or with earlier hominids including Homo erectus from about , years ago.
The era saw the composition of the Vedas , the seminal texts of Hinduism, and social stratification based on caste. The Vedic Civilisation extended over much of the Indo-Gangetic plain and witnessed the rise of major polities known as the Mahajanapadas. This period, witnessing a Hindu religious and intellectual resurgence, is known as the classical or " Golden Age of India ".
During this period, aspects of Indian civilisation, administration, culture, and religion Hinduism and Buddhism spread to much of Asia, while kingdoms in southern India had maritime business links with the Middle East and the Mediterranean.
Arab Invasion on Sind: Causes and Other Details
Indian cultural influence spread over many parts of Southeast Asia which led to the establishment of Indianised kingdoms in Southeast Asia Greater India. The most significant event between the 7th and 11th century was the Tripartite struggle centred on Kannauj that lasted for more than two centuries between the Pala Empire , Rashtrakuta Empire , and Gurjara Pratihara Empire. Southern India saw the rise of multiple imperial powers from the middle of the fifth century, most notable being the Chalukya , Chola , Pallava , Chera , Pandyan , and Western Chalukya Empires.
The 15th century saw the emergence of Sikhism.
In the 16th century, Mughals came from Central Asia and gradually covered most of India. The Mughal Empire suffered a gradual decline in the early 18th century, which provided opportunities for the Maratha Empire , Sikh Empire and Mysore Kingdom to exercise control over large areas of the subcontinent.
From the late 18th century to the midth century, large areas of India were annexed by the British East India Company of the British Empire. Dissatisfaction with Company rule led to the Indian Rebellion of , after which the British provinces of India were directly administered by the British Crown and witnessed a period of prolonged economic stagnation and major famines. The subcontinent gained independence from the United Kingdom in , after the British provinces were partitioned into the dominions of India and Pakistan and the princely states all acceded to one of the new states.
This periodisation has been influential, but has also been criticised for the misconceptions it gave rise to. Another influential periodisation is the division into "ancient, classical, medieval and modern periods", although this periodisation has also been criticised. Romila Thapar notes that the division into Hindu-Muslim-British periods of Indian history gives too much weight to "ruling dynasties and foreign invasions",  neglecting the social-economic history which often showed a strong continuity.
Isolated remains of Homo erectus in Hathnora in the Narmada Valley in central India indicate that India might have been inhabited since at least the Middle Pleistocene era, somewhere between , and , years ago. The earliest archaeological site in the subcontinent is the Palaeolithic hominid site in the Soan River valley.
The Mesolithic period in the Indian subcontinent was followed by the Neolithic period, when more extensive settlement of the subcontinent occurred after the end of the last Ice Age approximately 12, years ago.
The first confirmed semi-permanent settlements appeared 9, years ago in the Bhimbetka rock shelters in modern Madhya Pradesh , India. The first urban civilisation of the region began with the Indus Valley Civilisation.
Muslim conquests in the Indian subcontinent
The Pashupati seal , showing a seated and possibly tricephalic figure, surrounded by animals. Dholavira , one of the largest cities of Indus Valley Civilisation. It was centred on the Indus River and its tributaries which extended into the Ghaggar-Hakra River valley,  the Ganges-Yamuna Doab ,  Gujarat ,  and south-eastern Afghanistan.
It is also the most expansive in area and population. Historically part of Ancient India , it is one of the world's earliest urban civilisations, along with Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt.
The civilisation included urban centres such as Dholavira , Kalibangan , Ropar , Rakhigarhi , and Lothal in modern-day India, as well as Harappa , Ganeriwala , and Mohenjo-daro in modern-day Pakistan. The civilisation is noted for its cities built of brick, roadside drainage system, and multi-storeyed houses and is thought to have had some kind of municipal organisation.
However, the Indus Valley Civilisation did not disappear suddenly, and some elements of the Indus Civilisation may have survived, especially in the smaller villages and isolated farms. Linguists hypothesized that Dravidian-speaking people were spread throughout the Indian subcontinent before a series of Indo-Aryan migrations. In this view, the early Indus Valley civilisation is often identified as having been Dravidian. Based on a proto-Dravidian assumption, they proposed readings of many signs, some agreeing with the suggested readings of Heras and Knorozov such as equating the "fish" sign with the Dravidian word for fish "min" but disagreeing on several other readings.
A comprehensive description of Parpola's work until is given in his book "Deciphering the Indus Script. Bloch and M. Witzel believe that the Indo-Aryans moved into an already Dravidian speaking area after the oldest parts of the Rig Veda were already composed.
The Vedic period is named after the Indo-Aryan culture of north-west India, although other parts of India had a distinct cultural identity during this period. The Vedic culture is described in the texts of Vedas , still sacred to Hindus, which were orally composed in Vedic Sanskrit. The Vedas are some of the oldest extant texts in India. In terms of culture, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic to the Iron Age in this period. Historians have analysed the Vedas to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
History of India
Early Vedic society is described in the Rigveda , the oldest Vedic text, believed to have been compiled during 2nd millennium BCE,   in the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent.
At the end of the Rigvedic period, the Aryan society began to expand from the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent, into the western Ganges plain.
It became increasingly agricultural and was socially organised around the hierarchy of the four varnas , or social classes. This social structure was characterised both by syncretising with the native cultures of northern India,  but also eventually by the excluding of indigenous peoples by labelling their occupations impure. Since Vedic times,  [note 2] "people from many strata of society throughout the subcontinent tended to adapt their religious and social life to Brahmanic norms", a process sometimes called Sanskritisation.
During the Late Vedic Period, the kingdom of Videha emerged as a new centre of Vedic culture, situated even farther to the East in what is today Nepal and Bihar state in India ;  reaching its prominence under the king Janaka , whose court provided patronage for Brahmin sages and philosophers such as Yajnavalkya and Aruni.
In addition to the Vedas, the principal texts of Hinduism, the core themes of the Sanskrit epics Ramayana and Mahabharata are said to have their ultimate origins during this period. There is no conclusive proof from archaeology as to whether the specific events of the Mahabharata have any historical basis.
In the same period the first Upanishads were written.
This period saw the second major rise of urbanism in India after the Indus Valley Civilisation. Many smaller clans mentioned within early literature seem to have been present across the rest of the subcontinent. Some of these kings were hereditary; other states elected their rulers.
Early "republics" such as the Vajji or Vriji confederation centred in the city of Vaishali , existed as early as the 6th century BCE and persisted in some areas until the 4th century CE. The educated speech at that time was Sanskrit , while the languages of the general population of northern India are referred to as Prakrits.
These four were Vatsa, Avanti, Kosala, and Magadha. The life of Gautama Buddha was mainly associated with these four kingdoms. This period corresponds in an archaeological context to the Northern Black Polished Ware culture.
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Anyone who worships a divinity other than the Self is called a domestic animal of the gods in the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad. The Mundaka launches the most scathing attack on the ritual by comparing those who value sacrifice with an unsafe boat that is endlessly overtaken by old age and death. Increasing urbanisation of India in 7th and 6th centuries BCE led to the rise of new ascetic or shramana movements which challenged the orthodoxy of rituals.
Shramana gave rise to the concept of the cycle of birth and death, the concept of samsara , and the concept of liberation. Around the same time, Mahavira the 24th Tirthankara in Jainism propagated a theology that was to later become Jainism.
History of subcontinent from 712 to 1857 pdf to jpg
Rishabhanatha was the 1st Tirthankara. The core of the kingdom was the area of Bihar south of the Ganges ; its first capital was Rajagriha modern Rajgir then Pataliputra modern Patna. Magadha expanded to include most of Bihar and Bengal with the conquest of Licchavi and Anga respectively,  followed by much of eastern Uttar Pradesh and Orissa. The ancient kingdom of Magadha is heavily mentioned in Jain and Buddhist texts.
It is also mentioned in the Ramayana , Mahabharata , Puranas. Magadha played an important role in the development of Jainism and Buddhism, and two of India's greatest empires, the Maurya Empire and Gupta Empire , originated from Magadha. These empires saw advancements in ancient India's science, mathematics, astronomy , religion, and philosophy and were considered the Indian " Golden Age ". The Magadha kingdom included republican communities such as the community of Rajakumara.
Villages had their own assemblies under their local chiefs called Gramakas. Their administrations were divided into executive, judicial, and military functions. The Hindu epic Mahabharata calls Brihadratha the first ruler of Magadha. King Bimbisara of the Haryanka dynasty led an active and expansive policy, conquering Anga in what is now West Bengal.
History of education in the Indian subcontinent
The death of King Bimbisara was at the hands of his son, Prince Ajatashatru. King Pasenadi , ruler of neighbouring Kosala and brother-in-law of King Bimbisara, promptly retook the gift of the Kashi province. During this period, Gautama Buddha , the founder of Buddhism , lived much of his life in Magadha kingdom. He attained enlightenment in Bodh Gaya , gave his first sermon in Sarnath and the first Buddhist council was held in Rajgriha.
The Haryanka dynasty was overthrown by the Shishunaga dynasty. The area remained under Persian control for two centuries.
Under Persian rule the famous city of Takshashila became a centre where both Vedic and Iranian learning were mingled. His army, exhausted and frightened by the prospect of facing larger Indian armies at the Ganges River, mutinied at the Hyphasis modern Beas River and refused to march further East.
Alexander, after the meeting with his officer, Coenus , and after learning about the might of the Nanda Empire , was convinced that it was better to return.
The Persian and Greek invasions had repercussions in the north-western regions of the Indian subcontinent. The region of Gandhara, or present-day eastern Afghanistan and north-west Pakistan, became a melting pot of Indian, Persian, Central Asian, and Greek cultures and gave rise to a hybrid culture, Greco-Buddhism , which lasted until the 5th century CE and influenced the artistic development of Mahayana Buddhism. The Maurya Empire under Ashoka the Great.
Ashokan pillar at Vaishali , 3rd century BCE. At its greatest extent, the Mauryan Empire stretched to the north up to the natural boundaries of the Himalayas and to the east into what is now Assam.
Muslim Rule in India History,Now Pakistan India, Ghaznavi, Ghori, Khilji, Lodi & Mughal Delhi Empire
To the west, it reached beyond modern Pakistan, to the Hindu Kush mountains in what is now Afghanistan. By the time he died in c. However, the region of Kalinga around modern day Odisha remained outside Mauryan control, perhaps interfering with their trade with the south. This filled Ashoka with remorse and lead him to shun violence, and subsequently to embrace Buddhism.
The Arthashastra and the Edicts of Ashoka are the primary written records of the Mauryan times. The Mauryan Empire was based on a modern and efficient economy and society.
However, the sale of merchandise was closely regulated by the government. A significant amount of written records on slavery are found, suggesting a prevalence thereof. During this period, three Tamil Dynasties, collectively known as the Three Crowned Kings of Tamilakam : Chera dynasty , Chola dynasty and the Pandyan dynasty ruled parts of southern India.