- Study No. 24 in C minor
- Part i Turas
- UBC Theses and Dissertations
- History of Music
- STOKES, ENCYCLOPEDIA OF MUSIC AND MUSICIANS VOLUME 1
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- Borer 24 Caprices Paganini
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Refworks Account Login. Open Collections. UBC Theses and Dissertations. Featured Collection. These technical and expressive demands often include extended techniques, which are methods for producing novel timbres. This study undertakes an examination of these extended techniques on the viola.
It is necessary for the modern violist to be familiar with extended techniques, but they are not part of standard training on the instrument, as the majority of the standard etudes come from the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries and do not address modern technical challenges. Because contemporary pedagogical literature is scarce for the viola and few etudes address extended techniques, six etudes have been commissioned as a practical application for this project.
Study No. 24 in C minor
These etudes help to introduce and refine facility with extended techniques for students at an intermediate level. Extended techniques are often learned when a student is advanced, but they can and should be taught to younger students. The techniques are sometimes thought of as being unusual or challenging, but they are based on fundamental techniques and can contribute to and improve overall technical and musical abilities.
This project begins with an introduction and a literature review, followed by the third chapter which provides a context for extended techniques with a brief history of the instrument and its pedagogy. The fourth chapter explores various extended techniques, the fifth chapter discusses the commissioned etudes, and the conclusion reiterates the importance of learning extended techniques. A change in aesthetics in the music of the twentieth century made new expressive and technical demands on performers, and this music often uses extended techniques, which are unconventional ways of playing an instrument that produce novel timbres.
It is essential for the modern violist to be familiar with extended techniques, but they are often not addressed during formative training because the majority of educational materials come from the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.
This project is an exploration of extended techniques and includes six commissioned etudes that demonstrate how these techniques can be incorporated into any curriculum. Kirschner, and Zach Zubow. These compositions can be found in Appendix A and are included with permission of the composers. To the faculty, staff, and my fellow students in the School of Music, with enduring gratitude in particular to Eric Wilson and Bob Pritchard, whose insights and guidance were essential in helping this project take shape and actually turn into a completed project.
To my viola teachers, Dave Harding and Neil Miskey, for believing in me and expanding my understanding of music, and for being a source of constant inspiration.
Part i Turas
To everyone that I interviewed and the composers that contributed new compositions, it is because of your knowledge, creativity, and time that this project exists. To my friends who supported me tremendously, with very special thanks to Bettina Stumm, whose friendship, experience and encouragement constantly and consistently helped me to keep moving forward, and Heyni Solera, who gave me an extra push when it was needed. To my family, who truly helped me get through this, I can never say thank you enough.
And to God, for making all things possible.
UBC Theses and Dissertations
Combined with significant advances in technology, this led to compositions that challenge ideas of what music could be. Many of these approaches have strikingly different perspectives from those that came before them, and their expressive purposes place new demands on performers.
These demands challenge players with expanded harmonic and rhythmic requirements and — most relevant to this document — diverse timbres, often accomplished through the use of extended techniques. These timbres veer far away from those called for in eighteenth and nineteenth century compositions, so players must change their technique in order to properly execute them and produce the desired colours.
History of Music
Although there are new technical demands for the performer, the standard pedagogy that readies the performer for a career has not been adapted to include training on these techniques, leaving the performer unprepared as they grapple with unfamiliar techniques. These extended techniques and the importance of teaching them to students are the focus of this paper.
They do not include elements of harmony and rhythm because while different tonalities and complicated rhythms require certain kinds of knowledge, they do not require new physical skills. For example, microtones are not extended techniques because the process of playing a microtone is the same process required to play any note, as the adjustments necessary to play a microtone are identical to those necessary to play with good intonation.
STOKES, ENCYCLOPEDIA OF MUSIC AND MUSICIANS VOLUME 1
For rhythm, constantly shifting meters or complicated note groupings do not affect the technique on an instrument; it is only the moment and duration for which the technique is used which changes. This definition also indicates that external objects are excluded from being extended techniques.
For example, using a prepared piano is not an extended technique, because it is the piano itself which is altered, not the technique used to play it.
Similarly, amplification is not an extended 1 Ramiro Gallo remarked that extended techniques are a matter of timbre, Michel Michalakakos and Christophe Desjardins said that they come from an evolution of instrumental technique and the desire to always be pushing boundaries, and Anne Etevenon answered that extended techniques mean freedom, in the sense that there are more opportunities for personal expression.
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This definition also excludes actions such as whistling or singing while playing because they do not involve the instrument and therefore are not instrumental techniques. The growing focus on instrumental timbre during the twentieth century meant that the use of these techniques became more prevalent. Despite this, viola pedagogy has not kept up with the demands of certain styles of contemporary music, resulting in a disconnect between what is taught in the studio, and what might be demanded in contemporary repertoire.
It has always been a key element of music, but during the twentieth century there was an increasing focus on using it as a compositional element. In the two and a half centuries prior, sometimes known as the Common Practice Period CPP , much of the music sought to have a beauty and evenness of tone, and it was during this time that the fundamentals of string playing were established.
Borer 24 Caprices Paganini
However, composers in the twentieth century started experimenting with timbre, agreeing that it was now of primary importance.
Composers were well-versed in traditional instrumental and vocal timbres, but wished to expand the available timbral resources in order to explore new musical emotions, structures, and forms. By working with performers in exploring non-traditional performance methods for both instrumental and vocal music composers were able to develop and use new sonic resources.
These non-traditional performance methods often entail extended techniques — they require the performer to go beyond or extend their foundational technique in order to create the desired timbres. This is not a new approach or attitude, as artists are always pushing limits and extended techniques are a part of that — they take a technique and push it beyond its boundaries. For example, the viola is normally played with the bow hair making contact with the string, but what if the bow was turned in the hand, to an extreme extent?
The stick would then make contact with the string, and playing in such a way would be using the technique of col legno. Another example would be changing the contact point where the bow usually touches the string. It is essential for the modern violist to be familiar with these techniques.
The viola does not have the same tradition that the violin does, for it was not until the twentieth century that it was recognized as a solo instrument.
Very little solo viola repertoire exists in the Baroque, Classical, and Romantic eras, but a great deal of music was written for the viola starting in the twentieth century. As such, it is focal repertoire for the instrument, and is music with which the violist should be comfortable, whether or not it requires extended techniques.
The inspiration for this project comes from my own experiences with extended techniques, as they initially baffled me. For students, mastering these techniques encourages them to be more creative, versatile, and aware, and some techniques can even be taught right from the very moment that the student first picks up the instrument.
I intend to demonstrate ways in which they can be incorporated into learning with the help of six commissioned etudes, which contribute to a pedagogical literature that is lacking in works addressing extended techniques.
The second chapter is a literature review, and the third 7 For example, Michel Michalakakos suggests that students can be taught col legno when first learning to hold the bow. From an interview on May 1, The fourth chapter focusses specifically on extended techniques, delving into matters of usage, execution, and pedagogy, and the fifth chapter discusses the extended technique etudes that were commissioned for this project.
The document concludes with a summary and an examination of the benefits of learning extended techniques and the importance of being open to new music. My experiences are not unique, as a similar frustration over lack of knowledge and familiarity with these techniques has led a number of others to address this topic as well.
Literature about this topic written with the modern performer in mind tends to focus on aspects of harmony and rhythm, and extended techniques are not given much attention. Additionally, the majority of authors state that extended techniques should be taught to advanced and college-level students.
However, it is possible to teach them to younger students to great benefit. Within such pedagogies it is also rare to have extended techniques examined in terms of how they relate to timbre. The development of the instruments in the string family gives insights into the relationships between technique, pedagogy, timbre, and the function of music. Reinhard G. Until a canon of etudes and exercises was established in the eighteenth century, teachers composed their own materials or used repertoire as study material.
The higher technical standards of modern players are partly due to the wealth of technical pedagogical compositions. David D. Boyden London: Oxford University Press. Asdown, ? Louise Goldberg.
Evanston Ill. Frederick H. Martens New York: Carl Fischer, The creation of this class is investigated in a dissertation by Peter Neubert. ProQuest However, they have found that because of the vastly different approaches, it is not possible to come up with a unified pedagogy that encompasses all of the different schools of thought.
There are also dissertations that employ the concepts of these pedagogues in order to fix a particular problem: Matson Topper was concerned with the bow hold and motion of the right hand and Kirk Moss examined exercises pertaining to sound production, with the aim of discovering what could be adapted for a high school string class to promote a higher level of music-making.
Although it requires a slightly different technique, the viola continues to rely heavily on violin pedagogy. The differences in technique between the two instruments are explored in a dissertation by Sophie Parker, who conducted a survey covering the topics of switching from violin to viola, technique, pedagogy, repertoire and etudes, and mentors.
He also 46 Theodore K. There are also viola pedagogues who have been influential but have not published any methods, such as Heidi Castleman, Robert Vernon, and Karen Tuttle, whose influence on modern viola playing is explored by Matthew Dane. Pedagogy is usually grounded in etudes, the purpose of which are to help a student gain technical facility within a musical context, and etudes reflect the particular musical and tonal practices of the time.
Many of these are borrowed and transcribed for use on the viola, and etudes written specifically for the viola include those by Franz Anton Hoffmeister c. Examining these etudes reveals what was deemed important to learn on the instrument at that time, and there are several dissertations that discuss these etudes, especially in regard to their usefulness on the viola.
Nicholas Jeffery looked at how the etudes by Paganini can help develop technical facility on the viola,58 and Barbara Beechey and Ulisses Da Silva wrote guides to finding suitable etudes for common technical problems. Many contemporary etudes and treatises are occupied with the left hand and new finger patterns required by music during and after the twentieth century, but in continuing to ignore the demands that timbral production places on the right hand they are simply a continuation of the etudes that were written a century before.
Gavinies 24 etudes pdf creator
A truly contemporary pedagogy would include challenges and solutions for exploring timbre through the use of extended techniques.
Additionally, Molly Gebrian examined what is necessary to prepare violists for the challenges of twentieth-century music. This may be because of the reluctance of contemporary composers to write in this genre and the dependence by violinists and teachers on study material from the past.
This was followed in with a thesis by Charles Ashley,81 who noted that a number of the challenges that he faced with twentieth century music were due not to the difficult nature of the music but to the fact that the music seemed so foreign in comparison to what he had learned in his fundamental training. However, Ashley believes that the only new major technical problems for the violin in modern music come from pitch.
He states that there are four attributes of musical sound, and that timbre is just a function of the instrument. Chika Robertson wrote a detailed guide to many contemporary techniques, complete with exercises, but it is written for the advanced pupil or young professional because it is believed that they will benefit the most from learning the techniques.
In addition to pitch and timbre, the other two attributes are duration, which is a function of the time that the string vibrates, and amplitude, a function of the speed and pressure of the bow. While Bartok's sound world is complex, much of this does not include extended techniques, and these etudes are at the same level of difficulty as the concerto, so an advanced level of technique would already be required to play them.
There is still a need for etudes who teach contemporary music to those that do not already know how to play contemporary music, and the music and its demands need to be more accessible.