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Price Ball, Department of State Bernard H. Lane, Department of the Interior Frank D. Smith, Department of Agriculture Webster P. Baber Marion E. Bullock Victor M. Giffen William Graf Edward A.
Huse Frank W. Kihlbom William A. The forms and style in which the printing or binding ordered by any of the departments shall be executed, and the material and the size of type to be used, shall be determined by the Public Printer, having proper regard to economy, workmanship, and the purposes for which the work is needed U. George H. Dear Sir: Transmitted herewith is the proof of the proposed text of the new Manual of Style.
Your Style Board and the Depart- mental Advisory Board unanimously recommend its adoption and publication. The draft as recommended comprises certain prior decisions by you, general principles governing each element of style, a few simple rules based upon these principles, and examples illustrating the appli- cation of the principles and rules.
In comphance with your request a thorough revision has been attempted. That agreement upon details was not always unanimous is to be expected as long as style usages are in an experimental stage in which, basic principles are incomplete or do not fully recognize purpose as the deterroining factor.
The Enghsh language is changing and your advisory groups have not ignored obvious trends in American usages, such as reducing punctuation consistently with clearness; rationalizing word forma- tion, especially of compound words; wider use of the explicit arable numerals as found desirable in technical text; reduced capitalization of common nouns derived from proper nouns, and liberalization of capitalization in titles where a distinct purpose is served, and other trends.
General principles constitute a novel element in style-manual practice. It was found wise to base rules of style on fundamental principles found or formulated as criteria for case decisions. Estab- hshed practice, however, may resist change even where the rational decision is clear. We emphasize the beUef that rational principles based upon purpose to be served will bring about an enduring regularization of style to the extent possible in a developing language.
It is believed that such principles should eventually replace personal judgment, even of experts, and case decisions based on arbitrary rules. The new Manual of Style hereby submitted wiU, it is beheved, be a step in this direction. It is hoped that all changes in usage will be found clearly in the direction of an improved style. Respectfully submitted. Members of Style Board: H.
SIRMAN TC DA BANCO NEVADA E COLORADO - Meat mincer grinder
RoscoE E. Frank W. Kihlbom, Proofreader, Government Printing Office. Alice M. Bernard H. Frank D.
The same language was repeated in section 51 of the Printing Act of January 12, U. Code, title 44, sec. In comphance with the law, numerous editions of Style Manuals containing information and rules concerning uniformity m Govern- ment printing have been issued at various times during the last half century.
In earlier years of the Government Printing Office, rules of style were posted for the information of compositors and proofreaders. Rules governing the printing of patent specifications, with a list of words and technical terms used by the Patent Office, were published in by the Government Printing Office.
This Style Manual was revised and reissued in In the meantime, a Manual of Style Governing Composition and Proofreading in the Government Print- ing Office was prepared under the direction of the Public Printer and published in This book was the beginning of the regular series of Style Manuals for Government printing. The Manual issued in contained 40 pages of rules relating to orthography, capitahzation, compounding, tabular work, bills and other congressional pubhcations, and suggestions for compositors, readers, and revisers.
The preface to the first Style Manual stated that ''clear and positive rules for composition and proofreading are needed in printing offices to prevent confusion and unnecessary delay and expense. The Style Manual issued in contained pages, the greater part of which consisted of decisions of the United States Board on Geographic Names. The Style Book of was designated as ''a compilation of rules governing executive, congressional, and departmental printing, in- cluding the Congressional Record," and this language was repeated in subsequent revisions.
The revision of the Style Manual in was formally approved by the Joint Committee on Printing and was also approved and adopted by the Permanent Conference on Printing as ''the style to be followed in all Government departments and independent bureaus on and after February 15, Heretofore all compilations and revisions of the Style Manuals have been made by a board composed exclusively of members chosen from the personnel of the Government Printing Office.
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An innova- tion was undertaken by the Public Printer in the preparation of the present Manual. By letter of September 23, , the Public Printer invited the heads of several Government departments and establish- ments to appoint representatives on an advisory board to cooperate with the permanent Style Board of the Government Printing Office in a complete revision of the Manual.
In acceptance of this invita- tion, the Secretary of State, the Secretary of Commerce, the Secretary of Agriculture, the Secretary of the Interior, and the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution kindly designated especially competent representatives to cooperate with the board of the Government Printing Office. It is gratifying to note that the letter transmitting the text of the new Style Manual has been signed by all the members of the two boards with a notation of reservations by only one member.
The Public Printer has accepted the report as submitted with the exception of a few modifications wliich he believes are essential to preserve the necessary uniformity in Government printing and to secure essential economies. The modifications of importance relate to the use of diacritical marks in geographic names and to a definite authority for spelling.
In submitting the new Manual for determining the forms and style in which printing or binding ordered by any of the departments shall be executed, as required by law, the Pubhc Printer desires to express his thanks to the members of the departmental and the Government Printing Ofiice boards whose diligent and efficient efforts made this book possible, and to the heads of the Government estab- lishments who so generously cooperated with the Public Printer in the designation of members of the Advisory Board.
Public Printer. March 1, Careful observation of the following suggestions will aid materially in expediting publication and reducing printing expenditures.
As a gen- eral rule, copy will be printed in conformity with this Style Manual, unless otherwise authorized by the Public Printer. Copy should be carefully edited in accordance with the style here laid down before being sent to the Government Printing Office.
Changes on proof sheets add greatly to the expense and delay the work. Copy should be sent flat, with the sheets numbered consecutively, and typewritten, if possible, on one side of the paper only unless reprint. If both sides of reprint copy are to be used, a duplicate must be furnished if available. Each page should begin with a paragraph. If a paragraph runs over to another sheet, the sheets will be cut and pasted by the copy editor to retain the paragraph intact.
Tabular matter should be written on sheets separate from the text, as it is handled separately during composition. Legible copy, not faint carbon copies, must be furnished.
This is most essential for copy lq foreign languages and copy containing figures. Proper names, foreign words, and technical terms should be written plainly and verified. Signatures and figures should be written plainly. Manuscript and typewritten copy in a foreign language should be marked accurately to show capitalization, punctuation, accents, etc. Reference marks in text and tables should be arranged consecu- tively from left to right across each page.
See table, p. Photographs, drawings, etc. The proper place for each text figure should be indicated on the copy by inserting its number and title.
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A requisition for work containing illustrations must be accom- panied by a letter certif3ring that the illustrations are necessary and relate entirely to the transaction of pubHc business U. The total number of illustrations and the processes of repro- duction desired should also be indicated. Instructions should be given on the margin of each illustration if enlargement or reduction is necessary. Samples should be furnished if possible. They should be plainly marked, showing whether they illustrate the desired style of type, size of type page, paper, trim, lettering, or binding.
AH corrections should be made on first proofs submitted, as later proofs are intended for verification only. Plate corrections will be made only when absolutely necessary. All queries on proof must be answered. Corrections in proofs read by authors or department readers must be indicated as follows: 0 Period.
Two-em parallel dash. Insert space.
No paragraph. They must indicate point size and type series on copy, and whether matter is to be leaded or double-leaded, etc. Copy not otherwise marked will be set in point solid. It is not absolutely necessary to mark again anything that has been plainly indicated at the beginning of a sheet, as the preparation is to be followed if the same thing should appear more than once on the sheet; but on copy marked follow" the preparation must be carried throughout.
Copy that is ordered to be kept clean and returned intact must be marked as lightly as possible, so that erasures may be easily made. Copy editor's instructions, which accompany each job, are written to cover the general style and certain peculiarities or deviations from style. These instructions must be followed.
The following rules apply to all copy : Abbreviations In marking abbreviations to be spelled, copy editors must show what the spelled form should be, unless the abbreviations are com- mon and not susceptible of two constructions. Capitalization Unusual forms of capital and lower-case letters must be indicated.
Date lines, addresses, and signatures Copy editors must mark caps, small caps, italic, abbreviations, and indentions; also indicate where Unes are to be broken if necessary.
Decimals In figure columns containing decimals editors must indicate at the top of each folio of a continued table the number of decimal places necessary to ahne the points. Folioing and stamping copy FoHo numbers should be placed in the upper right-hand corner, preferably half an inch from the top.
AU other stamping — type size, measure, etc.