Bodybuilding is the use of progressive resistance exercise to control and develop one's musculature for aesthetic purposes. In competitive bodybuilding, bodybuilders appear in lineups and perform specified poses and later individual posing routines for a panel of judges who rank the competitors based on criteria such as symmetry, muscularity, size, conditioning, posing, and stage presentation. Bodybuilders prepare for competitions through the elimination of nonessential body fat , enhanced at the last stage by a combination of extracellular dehydration and carbohydrate loading , to achieve maximum muscular definition and vascularity , as well as tanning to accentuate the contrast of the skin under the spotlights.
Bodybuilders may use anabolic steroids and other performance-enhancing drugs to build muscles. Olympia contest is generally recognized as the world's top male professional bodybuilder.
Winners generally go on to become professional athletes. Stone-lifting traditions were practiced in ancient Egypt , Greece and Tamilakam. The focus was not on their physique, and they often had large bellies and fatty limbs.
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Bodybuilding developed in the late 19th century, promoted in England by German Eugen Sandow , now considered as the "Father of Bodybuilding". He allowed audiences to enjoy viewing his physique in "muscle display performances". Although audiences were thrilled to see a well-developed physique, the men simply displayed their bodies as part of strength demonstrations or wrestling matches.
Sandow had a stage show built around these displays through his manager, Florenz Ziegfeld. The Oscar -winning musical film The Great Ziegfeld depicts the beginning of modern bodybuilding, when Sandow began to display his body for carnivals.
Sandow was so successful at flexing and posing his physique that he later created several businesses around his fame, and was among the first to market products branded with his name. He was credited with inventing and selling the first exercise equipment for the masses: machined dumbbells , spring pulleys , and tension bands. Even his image was sold by the thousands in " cabinet cards " and other prints. Sandow was a perfect "Gracilian", a standard of ideal body proportions close to those of ancient Greek and Roman statues.
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Men's physiques were then judged by how closely they matched these proportions. Sandow organized the first bodybuilding contest on September 14, , called the "Great Competition". It was held at the Royal Albert Hall in London.
Judged by Sandow, Sir Charles Lawes, and Sir Arthur Conan Doyle , the contest was a great success and many bodybuilding enthusiasts were turned away due to the overwhelming amount of audience members. The winner was William L.
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Murray of Nottingham. The silver Sandow trophy was presented to second-place winner D. The bronze Sandow trophy — now the most famous of all — was presented to third-place winner A. Universe contest. Olympia contest, Frank Zane , was presented with a replica of the bronze trophy.
Since then, Mr. Olympia winners have been consistently awarded a replica of the bronze Sandow. Two weeks later, Thomas Edison made a film of Treloar's posing routine.
Edison had also made two films of Sandow a few years before. Those were the first three motion pictures featuring a bodybuilder.
In the early 20th century, Macfadden and Charles Atlas continued to promote bodybuilding across the world. Alois P. Swoboda was an early pioneer in America. Many other important bodybuilders in the early history of bodybuilding prior to include: Earle Liederman writer of some of bodybuilding's earliest books , Zishe Breitbart , Georg Hackenschmidt , Emy Nkemena, George F.
Mead who became an impressive muscle champion despite the fact that he lost a leg in World War I. Actor Francis X. Bushman , who was a disciple of Sandow, started his career as a bodybuilder and sculptor's model before beginning his famous silent movie career. Bodybuilding became more popular in the s and s with the emergence of strength and gymnastics champions, and the simultaneous popularization of bodybuilding magazines, training principles, nutrition for bulking up and cutting down , the use of protein and other food supplements , and the opportunity to enter physique contests.
Consequently, the contests grew both in number and in size. Besides the many "Mr. XXX" insert town, city, state, or region championships, the most prestigious titles [ according to whom?
America, Mr. World, Mr. Universe, Mr. Galaxy, and ultimately Mr. Olympia, which was started in by the IFBB and is now considered the most important bodybuilding competition in the world. During the s, the most successful and most famous competing bodybuilders [ according to whom? Certain bodybuilders rose to fame thanks to the relatively new medium of television, as well as cinema.
The most notable [ according to whom? While there were well-known gyms throughout the country during the s such as Vince's Gym in North Hollywood, California and Vic Tanny 's chain gyms , there were still segments of the United States that had no "hardcore" bodybuilding gyms until the advent of Gold's Gym in the mids.
Finally, the famed Muscle Beach in Santa Monica continued its popularity as the place to be for witnessing acrobatic acts, feats of strength, and the like. The movement grew more in the s with increased TV and movie exposure, as bodybuilders were typecast in popular shows and movies. In the s, bodybuilding had major publicity thanks to the appearance of Arnold Schwarzenegger , Franco Columbu , Lou Ferrigno , and others in the docudrama Pumping Iron.
The late s and early s saw the decline of AAU-sponsored bodybuilding contests. In , the AAU voted to discontinue its bodybuilding events. This period also saw the rise of anabolic steroids in bodybuilding and many other sports.
Bodybuilders such as Greg Kovacs attained mass and size never seen previously but were not successful at the pro level. Others were renowned for their spectacular development of a particular body part, like Tom Platz or Paul Demayo for their leg muscles. At the time of shooting Pumping Iron , Schwarzenegger while never admitting to steroid use until long after his retirement said that "you have to do anything you can to get the advantage in competition".
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To combat steroid use and in the hopes of becoming a member of the IOC , the IFBB introduced doping tests for both steroids and other banned substances. Although doping tests occurred, the majority of professional bodybuilders still used anabolic steroids for competition.
During the s, the use of anabolic steroids was openly discussed, partly due to the fact they were legal. McMahon wanted to bring WWF -style showmanship and bigger prize money to the sport of bodybuilding.
A number of IFBB stars were recruited but the roster was never very large and featured the same athletes competing; the most notable winner and first WBF champion was Gary Strydom.
Reasons for this reportedly included lack of income from the pay-per-view broadcasts of the contests, slow sales of the WBF's magazine Bodybuilding Lifestyles later WBF Magazine , and the expense of paying multiple six-figure contracts while producing two TV shows and a monthly magazine. Olympia contest. In the early 21st century, patterns of consumption and recreation similar to those of the United States became more widespread in Europe and especially in Eastern Europe following the collapse of the Soviet Union.
This resulted in the emergence of whole new populations of bodybuilders from former Eastern Bloc states. It obtained full IOC membership in and was attempting to get approved as a demonstration event at the Olympics, which would hopefully lead to it being added as a full contest. This did not happen and Olympic recognition for bodybuilding remains controversial since many argue that bodybuilding is not a sport. In the modern bodybuilding industry, the term " professional " generally means a bodybuilder who has won qualifying competitions as an amateur and has earned a "pro card" from their respective organization.
Professionals earn the right to compete in competitions that include monetary prizes. A pro card also prohibits the athlete from competing in federations other than the one from which they have received the pro card. Due to the growing concerns of the high cost, health consequences, and illegal nature of some steroids, many organizations have formed in response and have deemed themselves "natural" bodybuilding competitions.
In addition to the concerns noted, many promoters of bodybuilding have sought to shed the "freakish" perception that the general public has of bodybuilding and have successfully introduced a more mainstream audience to the sport of bodybuilding by including competitors whose physiques appear much more attainable and realistic. In natural contests, the testing protocol ranges among organizations from lie detectors to urinalysis.
Penalties also range from organization to organization from suspensions to strict bans from competition. It is also important to note that natural organizations also have their own list of banned substances and it is important to refer to each organization's website for more information about which substances are banned from competition.
These organizations either have an American or worldwide presence and are not limited to the country in which they are headquartered.
Due to the number of people who found bodybuilding to be "too big" or "ugly" and unhealthy, a new category was started in The first MR. Olympia was Mark Wingson, which was followed by Jeremy Buendia for consecutive years.
Like bodybuilding, the federations in which you can compete in are all the same, there is natural and regular as well but the main difference between the two is that men's physique pose in board shorts rather than a traditional posing suit. Bodybuilders are much larger than the men physique competitors as well as have an extensive routine when posing while the Physique category only gets judged by the front and back poses. Many of the competitors are not freakishly large and have a bit of a more attainable and aesthetic physique in comparison to bodybuilding.
Although this category started off slow, it grew tremendously in the past 5 years, now Men's Physique seems to be the most popular class to be in.
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This is the middle ground of both Men's Physique and Bodybuilding. The competitors in this category are not nearly as big as bodybuilders but not as small as mens physique competitors.
They pose and perform in mens boxer briefs to show off the legs, unlike Mens Physique which hide the legs in board shorts. Classic physique has only been around for 3 years now as it started in Danny Hester was the first Classic Physique Mr.
Olympia and now Chris Bumstead is the Mr. The first U. Women's National Physique Championship, promoted by Henry McGhee and held in Canton, Ohio in , is generally regarded as the first true female bodybuilding contest—that is, the first contest where the entrants were judged solely on muscularity. Olympia initially known as the "Miss" Olympia , the most prestigious contest for professionals, was held. The contest was a major turning point for female bodybuilding. McLish inspired many future competitors to start training and competing.